January 2017Baseline Pretreatment Contrast Enhancing Tumor Volume Including Central Necrosis is a Prognostic Factor in Recurrent Glioblastoma: Evidence from Single and Multicenter Trials.
Ellingson BM, Harris RJ, Woodworth DC, Leu K, Zaw O, Mason WP, Sahebjam S, Abrey LE, Aftab DT, Schwab GM, Hessel C, Lai A, Nghiemphu PL, Pope WB, Wen PY, Cloughesy TF.
BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of baseline contrast enhancing tumor prior to second- or third-line therapy in recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) for overall survival (OS) remains controversial, particularly in the context of repeated surgical resection and/or use of anti-angiogenic therapy. In the current study, we examined recurrent GBM patients from both single and multicenter clinical trials to test whether baseline enhancing tumor volume, including central necrosis, is a significant prognostic factor for OS in recurrent GBM. METHODS: Included were 497 patients with recurrent GBM from 4 data sources: 2 single-center sites (University of Toronto, University of California Los Angeles) and 2 phase II multicenter trials (AVF3708G, Bevacizumab ± Irinotecan, NCT00345163; XL184-201, Cabozantinib, NCT00704288). T1 subtraction maps were used to define volume of contrast enhancing tumor, including central necrosis. Cox multivariable and univariate analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between tumor volume prior to second- or third-line therapy and OS.
January 2017Patient Size-Specific Analysis of Dose Indexes From CT Lung Cancer Screening.
Fujii K, McMillan K, Bostani M, Cagnon C, McNitt-Gray M.
OBJECTIVE: The U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) recently approved the use of low-dose CT for lung cancer screening and described volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol) requirements. These were based on the National Lung Screening Trial, which used only fixed-tube-current techniques. The aim of this study was to evaluate dose index data from a lung cancer screening program using automatic exposure control (AEC) techniques to ensure compliance with requirements and to correlate dose index values with patient size. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CTDIvol, dose-length product (DLP), and body mass index (BMI) data were collected for 563 lung cancer screening examinations performed with AEC between January 1, 2014, through August 31, 2015. CTDIvol and DLP were analyzed according to the patient's BMI classification. Results were compared with the CMS requirement that the CTDIvol for a standard-sized patient (height, 170 cm; weight, 70 kg) be 3.0 mGy or less, with adjustments for patients of different sizes. For a subset of patients, the average water-equivalent diameter and size-specific dose estimate were estimated.
January 2017Percutaneous Lung Biopsy in the Molecular Profiling Era: A Survey of Current Practices.
Lee C, Guichet PL, Abtin F.
PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the current practice patterns of radiologists performing percutaneous lung biopsies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a web-based survey sent to the Society of Thoracic Radiology membership from August to October 2015. Responses were collected anonymously, and results were tallied.
January 2017Utilization of Emergent Neuroimaging for Thrombolysis-Eligible Stroke Patients.
Sanossian N, Fu KA, Liebeskind DS, Starkman S, Hamilton S, Villablanca JP, Burgos AM, Conwit R, Saver JL.
BACKGROUND: Advances in diagnostic imaging of stroke include multimodal techniques such as noninvasive angiography and perfusion imaging. We aimed to characterize trends in neuroimaging utilization among acute stroke patients. Utilization of multimodal imaging for acute stroke in the community has remained largely uncharacterized despite its increased adoption at academic medical centers. METHODS: We quantified neuroimaging utilization in the emergency department (ED) for 1,700 hyperacute stroke patients presenting <2 hours after symptom onset who participated in the National Institutes of Health Field Administration of Stroke Therapy-Magnesium (FAST-MAG) study throughout Los Angeles and Orange Counties. FAST-MAG provided no recommendation as to imaging utilization.
January 2017Evaluating Small-Airways Disease in Asthmatic Patients: The Utility of Quantitative Computed Tomography.
Tashkin DP, Kim HJ, Zeidler M, Kleerup E, Goldin J.
The tracheobronchial tree comprises a branching system of airways, beginning with the trachea, in which each airway divides mostly dichotomously into 2 smaller airways of progressively smaller diameter and, in most cases, shorter length, down to the smallest airway (a respiratory bronchiole) before terminating after approximately 23 divisions in the distal air sacs and alveoli. Historically, the lower respiratory tract has been divided into large and small airways, the latter defined as airways of 2 mm in diameter or smaller and corresponding to approximately the seventh or eighth generation and beyond of branching airways. In view of the exponential increase in the number of airways with each successive generation, most of the tracheobronchial tree is comprised of small airways, the total cross-sectional area of which is much greater than that of the larger airways, resulting in a relatively low resistance to airflow in the healthy lung.
January 2017Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma: Identifying the Gain of Chromosome 12 on Multiphasic MDCT.
Young JR, Coy H, Douek M, Lo P, Sayre J, Pantuck AJ, Raman SS.
PURPOSE: To determine whether multiphasic MDCT enhancement can help identify the gain of chromosome 12 in clear cell renal cell carcinomas (RCCs). METHODS: With IRB approval for this HIPAA-compliant case control study, we derived a cohort of 65 clear cell RCCs with preoperative four-phase renal mass MDCT from October 2000 to August 2013. Each lesion was segmented in its entirety on axial images in all phases. A computer-assisted detection (CAD) algorithm selected a 0.5-cm-diameter region of maximal attenuation within each lesion in each phase. Attenuation in each phase between clear cell RCCs with and without the gain of 12 was compared using t-tests.