January 2020Advances in Controlled Oxygen Generating Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Therapy.
Ashammakhi N, Darabi MA, Kehr NS, Erdem A, Hu SK, Dokmeci MR, Nasr AS, Khademhosseini A.
Oxygen (O2) generating biomaterials are emerging as important compositions to improve our capabilities in supporting tissue engineering and regenerative therapeutics. Several in vitro studies demonstrated the usefulness of O2 releasing biomaterials in enhancing cell survival and differentiation. However, more efforts are needed to develop materials that can provide sustained O2 release for the long-term. In this paper, we present different O2 generating sources, including hydrogen peroxide, sodium percarbonate, calcium peroxide and magnesium peroxide, and also cover types of carriers and relevant methods of fabricating O2 generating systems. Then, the applications of O2 generating materials in supporting engineered constructs, supplying high O2 demanding cell transplants, and supporting ischemic tissues are discussed. Moreover, the challenges and future perspectives are highlighted.
January 2020Treatment of Recurrent Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations: Comparison of Proximal Versus Distal Embolization Technique.
Cusumano LR, Duckwiler GR, Roberts DG, McWilliams JP.
PURPOSE: To examine the characteristics of recurrent pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) and compare the success of proximal versus distal embolization technique for treatment of recanalized PAVMs. MATERIALS: Between July 2007 and October 2018, 26 consecutive patients underwent embolization of 64 previously treated recurrent PAVMs at a single center with imaging follow-up. PAVM angioarchitecture was classified as either simple (1 feeding artery) or complex (≥ 2 feeding arteries). The mechanism of recurrence was characterized as recanalization (flow through previously placed embolic material) or reperfusion (flow through accessory arteries). For recanalized PAVMs, we compared embolizing proximal to or within the existing embolic (proximal embolization technique) versus embolizing distal to the existing embolic (distal embolization technique). Follow-up imaging was reviewed to determine treatment success, defined as decrease of the draining vein or sac size by at least 70%.
January 2020Factors Associated with Symptomology of Celiac Artery Compression and Outcomes following Median Arcuate Ligament Release.
Khrucharoen U, Juo YY, Sanaiha Y, Finn JP, Jimenez JC, Dutson EP.
BACKGROUND: This study aims to identify potential risk factors for becoming symptomatic in patients with radiographic celiac artery compression (CAC) as well as prognostic factors for patients with median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) who underwent surgical ligament release. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients with findings of CAC on computed tomography or magnetic resonance angiography (CT/MRA) who were asymptomatic and who were diagnosed with MALS at a single university hospital between January 2001 and 2018.
January 2020Cirrhotic Nodule Transformation to Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Natural History and Predictive Biomarkers on Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound.
Lin M, Lu DS, Duan Y, Liao P, Sayre J, Xie X, Kuang M.
OBJECTIVE. The objective of our study was to identify sonographic biomarkers predicting or indicating eventual malignant transformation of pathologically confirmed cirrhotic nodules. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Thirty-nine consecutive patients with 44 pathologically confirmed cirrhotic nodules (mean size, 17.5 ± 8.5 [SD] mm) who initially underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasound examination at detection and then underwent follow-up conventional ultrasound every 3-4 months thereafter were retrospectively included. Malignant transformation was identified on the basis of noninvasive diagnostic criteria for hepatocellular carcinoma or rebiopsy. Malignant transformation biomarkers were identified from clinical and sonographic variables and the performance thereof was evaluated using ROC curves.
January 2020Long-Term Survival after Percutaneous Radiofrequency Ablation of Pathologically Proven Renal Cell Carcinoma in 100 Patients.
Marshall HR, Shakeri S, Hosseiny M, Sisk A, Sayre J, Lu DS, Pantuck A, Raman S.
PURPOSE: To determine the long-term survival of patients treated with percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation for pathologically proven renal cell carcinoma (RCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this single-center retrospective study, 100 patients with 125 RCCs (100 clear-cell, 19 papillary, and 6 chromophobe) 0.8-8 cm in size treated with RF ablation were evaluated at a single large tertiary-care center between 2004 and 2015. Technical success, primary and secondary technique efficacy, and pre- and postprocedural estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 3-6 months and 2-3 years were recorded. Overall survival, cancer-specific survival, and local tumor progression-free survival were calculated by Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Complications were classified per the Clavien-Dindo system. Statistical testing was done via χ2 tests for proportions and paired t test for changes in eGFR. Statistical significance was set at α = 0.05.
January 2020Pamrevlumab, an Anti-connective Tissue Growth Factor Therapy, for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (PRAISE): a Phase 2, Randomised, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial.
Richeldi L, Fernández Pérez ER, Costabel U, Albera C, Lederer DJ, Flaherty KR, Ettinger N, Perez R, Scholand MB, Goldin J, Peony Yu KH, Neff T, Porter S, Zhong M, Gorina E, Kouchakji E, Raghu G.
BACKGROUND: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a secreted glycoprotein that has a central role in the process of fibrosis. This study was designed to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of pamrevlumab (FG-3019), a fully recombinant human monoclonal antibody against CTGF, in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The aim was to establish whether pamrevlumab could slow, stop, or reverse progression of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. METHODS: The phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled PRAISE trial was done at 39 medical centres in seven countries (Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, India, New Zealand, South Africa, and the USA). Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and percentage of predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) of 55% or greater were enrolled and randomly assigned (1:1) by use of interactive responsive technology to intravenous infusion of pamrevlumab 30 mg/kg or placebo every 3 weeks over 48 weeks (16 infusions). The primary efficacy outcome was change from baseline in percentage of predicted FVC at week 48. Disease progression (defined as a decline from baseline in percentage of predicted FVC of ≥10%, or death) at week 48 was a key secondary efficacy outcome. All patients in the pamrevlumab group received at least one dose of the study drug and were analysed for safety. Two patients in the placebo group were excluded from the intention-to-treat population for the efficacy analyses because of enrolment error. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01890265.
January 2020Patient Safety Analysis in Radiation Burden of Head Computed Tomography Imaging in 1185 Neurosurgical Inpatients.
Sheppard JP, Duong C, Romiyo P, Azzam D, Alkhalid Y, Nguyen T, Babayan D, Lagman C, Sun MZ, Prashant GN, Beckett JS, Yang I.
OBJECTIVE: We performed a retrospective analysis in a cohort of 1185 patients at our institution who were identified as undergoing ≥1 head computed tomography (CT) examinations during their inpatient stay on the neurosurgery service, to quantify the number, type, and associated radiation burden of head CT procedures performed by the neurosurgery service. METHODS: CT procedure records and radiology reports were obtained via database search and directly validated against records retrieved from manual chart review. Next, dosimetry data from the head CT procedures were extracted via automated text mining of electronic radiology reports.
January 2020Room-Temperature-Formed PEDOT:PSS Hydrogels Enable Injectable, Soft, and Healable Organic Bioelectronics.
Zhang S, Chen Y, Liu H, Wang Z, Ling H, Wang C, Ni J, Çelebi-Saltik B, Wang X, Meng X, Kim HJ, Baidya A, Ahadian S, Ashammakhi N, Dokmeci MR, Travas-Sejdic J, Khademhosseini A.
There is an increasing need to develop conducting hydrogels for bioelectronic applications. In particular, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hydrogels have become a research hotspot due to their excellent biocompatibility and stability. However, injectable PEDOT:PSS hydrogels have been rarely reported. Such syringe-injectable hydrogels are highly desirable for minimally invasive biomedical therapeutics. Here, an approach is demonstrated to develop injectable PEDOT:PSS hydrogels by taking advantage of the room-temperature gelation property of PEDOT:PSS. These PEDOT:PSS hydrogels form spontaneously after syringe injection of the PEDOT:PSS suspension into the desired location, without the need of any additional treatments. A facile strategy is also presented for large-scale production of injectable PEDOT:PSS hydrogel fibers at room temperature. Finally, it is demonstrated that these room-temperature-formed PEDOT:PSS hydrogels (RT-PEDOT:PSS hydrogel) and hydrogel fibers can be used for the development of soft and self-healable hydrogel bioelectronic devices.