November 2023Combination Transarterial Chemoembolization and Microwave Ablation vs. Microwave Ablation Monotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinomas Greater Than 3 cm: A Comparative Study.
Chiang J, Rajendran PS, Hao F, Sayre J, Raman SS, Lu DSK, McWilliams JP.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of combination therapy using transarterial chemoembolization with microwave ablation (MWA) therapy vs. MWA monotherapy for hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) >3 cm in size. METHODS: This two-arm retrospective observational study included patients with HCCs >3 cm who underwent either combination therapy (29 patients) or MWA monotherapy (35 patients) between 2014 and 2020. The treatment outcomes related to primary treatment efficacy, local tumor progression (LTP), tumor control rate, and overall survival were compared between each cohort.
November 2023Added Value of Cone-Beam CT to Identify Arterial Supply during Genicular Artery Embolization for Knee Osteoarthritis.
Cusumano LR, Callese TE, Redwood K, Genshaft S, Plotnik AN, Stewart JK, Padia SA.
PURPOSE: To evaluate if the addition of cone-beam computed tomography (CT) to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) improves the identification of the genicular arteries during genicular artery embolization (GAE) for knee pain secondary to osteoarthritis (OA). MATERIALS & METHODS: This single-center study retrospectively analyzed 222 patients who underwent GAE for painful knee OA between May 2018 and April 2022. Intraprocedural cone-beam CT and DSA images were reviewed independently by 2 sets of interventional radiologists. DSA was performed for all patients. Technically adequate cone-beam CT was available for 205 patients (92.3%). The presence of the genicular arteries identified by cone-beam CT and DSA was compared using Φ coefficients. Embolization targets identified by both cone-beam CT and DSA were evaluated against those identified by DSA alone.
November 2023Do Bone Scans Overstage Disease Compared with PSMA PET at Initial Staging? An International Multicenter Retrospective Study with Masked Independent Readers.
Hope TA, Benz M, Jiang F, Thompson D, Barbato F, Juarez R, Hernandez Pampaloni M, Allen-Auerbach M, Gupta P, Fendler WP, Calais J.
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET has a higher accuracy than CT and bone scans to stage patients with prostate cancer. We do not understand how to apply clinical trial data based on conventional imaging to patients staged using PSMA PET. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the ability of bone scans to detect osseous metastases using PSMA PET as a reference standard. METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective diagnostic study, 167 patients with prostate cancer, who were imaged with bone scans and PSMA PET performed within 100 d, were included for analysis. Each study was interpreted by 3 masked readers, and the results of the PSMA PET were used as the reference standard. Endpoints were positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and specificity for bone scans. Additionally, interreader reproducibility, positivity rate, uptake on PSMA PET, and the number of lesions were evaluated.
November 2023A Framework for Standardised Tissue Sampling and Processing during Resection of Diffuse Intracranial Glioma: Joint Recommendations from Four RANO Groups.
Karschnia P, Smits M, Reifenberger G, Le Rhun E, Ellingson BM, Galldiks N, Kim MM, Huse JT, Schnell O, Harter PN, Mohme M; Expert Rater Panel; von Baumgarten L, Albert NL, Huang RY, Mehta MP, van den Bent M, Weller M, Vogelbaum MA, Chang SM, Berger MS, Tonn JC.
Surgical resection represents the standard of care for people with newly diagnosed diffuse gliomas, and the neuropathological and molecular profile of the resected tissue guides clinical management and forms the basis for research. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) consortium is an international, multidisciplinary effort that aims to standardise research practice in neuro-oncology. These recommendations represent a multidisciplinary consensus from the four RANO groups: RANO resect, RANO recurrent glioblastoma, RANO radiotherapy, and RANO/PET for a standardised workflow to achieve a representative tumour evaluation in a disease characterised by intratumoural heterogeneity, including recommendations on which tumour regions should be surgically sampled, how to define those regions on the basis of preoperative imaging, and the optimal sample volume. Practical recommendations for tissue sampling are given for people with low-grade and high-grade gliomas, as well as for people with newly diagnosed and recurrent disease. Sampling of liquid biopsies is also addressed. A standardised workflow for subsequent handling of the resected tissue is proposed to avoid information loss due to decreasing tissue quality or insufficient clinical information. The recommendations offer a framework for prospective biobanking studies.
November 2023RANO 2.0: Update to the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Criteria for High- and Low-Grade Gliomas in Adults.
Wen PY, van den Bent M, Youssef G, Cloughesy TF, Ellingson BM, Weller M, Galanis E, Barboriak DP, de Groot J, Gilbert MR, Huang R, Lassman AB, Mehta M, Molinaro AM, Preusser M, Rahman R, Shankar LK, Stupp R, Villanueva-Meyer JE, Wick W, Macdonald DR, Reardon DA, Vogelbaum MA, Chang SM.
PURPOSE: The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria for high-grade gliomas (RANO-HGG) and low-grade gliomas (RANO-LGG) were developed to improve reliability of response assessment in glioma trials. Over time, some limitations of these criteria were identified, and challenges emerged regarding integrating features of the modified RANO (mRANO) or the immunotherapy RANO (iRANO) criteria. METHODS: Informed by data from studies evaluating the different criteria, updates to the RANO criteria are proposed (RANO 2.0).
November 2023Pretreatment Brain CT Perfusion Thresholds for Predicting Final Infarct Volume in Distal Medium Vessel Occlusions.
Yedavalli V, Hamam O, Mohseni A, Chen K, Wang R, Heo HY, Heit J, Marsh EB, Llinas R, Urrutia V, Xu R, Gonzalez F, Albers G, Hillis A, Nael K.
BACKGROUND & PURPOSE: Quantitative CT perfusion (CTP) thresholds for assessing the extent of ischemia in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) have been established; relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) <30% is typically used for estimating estimated ischemic core volume and Tmax (time to maximum) >6 seconds for critical hypoperfused volume in AIS patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO). In this study, we aimed to identify the optimal threshold values for patients presenting with AIS secondary to distal medium vessel occlusions (DMVOs). METHODS: In this retrospective study, consecutive AIS patients with anterior circulation DMVO who underwent pretreatment CTP and follow-up MRI/CT were included. The CTP data were processed by RAPID (iSchemaView, Menlo Park, CA) to generate estimated ischemic core volumes using rCBF <20%, <30%, <34%, and <38% and critical hypoperfused volumes using Tmax (seconds) >4, >6, >8, and >10. Final infarct volumes (FIVs) were obtained from follow-up MRI/CT within 5 days of symptom onset. Diagnostic performance between CTP thresholds and FIV was assessed in the successfully and unsuccessfully recanalized groups.
October 2023Primary Pulmonary Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma Presenting as Progressive Respiratory Failure in a 38-Year-Old Woman: A Case Report of a Rare Entity
Asachi P, Reilly D, Pourzand L.
We report a case of primary pulmonary anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma in a 38-year-old woman with a smoking and vaping history. The patient presented with hypoxemia and a history of shortness of breath, cough, and intermittent fevers. Initial imaging and pleural fluid studies suggested possible empyema. Despite being given antibiotics, her respiratory status continued to deteriorate and she was put on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Repeat imaging showed increased size of intrathoracic lymph nodes and perilymphatic pulmonary nodules. IV steroids were initiated after bronchoalveolar lavage revealed lipophages suggestive of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use-associated lung injury. A laboratory workup revealed no signs of rheumatologic disease, and negative cultures ruled out a bacterial or fungal cause of the disease. Because of these laboratory results and because the patient did not show clinical signs of improvement, a biopsy of the left lower lobe lymph node was performed. The patient was diagnosed with anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma based on the results of the biopsy. This case highlights the importance of suspecting pulmonary lymphoma in patients with a history of B-symptoms and compatible imaging findings, despite its rarity.
October 2023From Great Resignation to Great Retention: Orientation as a First Step in Engaging Faculty Well-being.
Azour L, McGuinness G.
Onboarding lays a foundation spanning multipart missions and teaches faculty how to engage and excel in the departmental environment. At the enterprise level, onboarding is a process to connect and support diverse teams, with a range of symbiotic phenotypes, into thriving departmental ecosystems. At the more personal level, onboarding involves guiding individuals with unique backgrounds, experiences, and strengths into their new roles, growing both the individual and the system. This guide will share elements of an initial step in the departmental faculty onboarding process, faculty orientation.
October 2023Extensive Subcutaneous Calcinosis and Hypercalcemia in the Setting of Mineral Oil-Injection-Related Foreign Body Reaction: A Case Report
Chang RO, Khoshchehreh M, Viragh KA.
Soft tissue calcifications are a common imaging finding, but in the setting of a cosmetic augmentative injection and hypercalcemia, it may be pathognomonic for lipogranuloma, a delayed granulomatous inflammatory reaction to the injected foreign material. Although diagnosis of lipogranuloma is based on the results of histopathologic examination, the radiologist may play a key role in the clinical evaluation of challenging cases when patients do not report about nonmedical cosmetic procedures. If the treatment of granulomatosis-induced hypercalcemia is not timely, it may result in chronic renal disease and other comorbidities. We report a case of lipogranuloma with extensive subcutaneous calcification and hypercalcemia associated with cosmetic injection.
October 2023Characterizing Hepatocellular Carcinoma Stem Markers and Their Corresponding Susceptibility to NK-cell Based Immunotherapy.
Chiang J, Chen PC, Pham J, Nguyen CQ, Kaur K, Raman SS, Jewett A.
INTRODUCTION: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and is the fourth-leading cause of all cancer-related deaths around the world. Liver transplantation, surgery, and local ablation are curative therapies for early-stage HCC. However, post-treatment outcomes can vary based on histopathologic stage. Poorly-differentiated HCC are associated with higher rates of tumor progression and lower overall survival compared to well-differentiated HCC after therapy. In this study, we aimed to characterize the cancer stem cell (CSC) profile of histopathologically-proven well and poorly-differentiated HCCs in an in-vitro environment. We characterized the stem-like profile of each type of HCC based on their surface markers and susceptibility to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. METHODS: Flow cytometry was used to quantify differential expression of MHC-class I, CD54, and CD44 between well- and poorly-differentiated HCCs. Primary untreated NK cells, IL-2 stimulated primary NK cells, and supercharged (sNK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity was assessed against well- and poorly-differentiated HCCs. IFN-γ supernatant from each respective NK cell experimental arm was also used to induce differentiation of HCCs. Finally, we characterized the temporal NK effector cell cytotoxicity using real-time quantitative analysis of imaging and impedance (eSight study).
October 2023Characteristics of Ictal Thalamic EEG in Pediatric-onset Neocortical Focal Epilepsy.
Edmonds B, Miyakoshi M, Gianmaria Remore L, Ahn S, Westley Phillips H, Daida A, Salamon N, Bari A, Sankar R, Matsumoto JH, Fallah A, Nariai H.
OBJECTIVE: To characterize ictal EEG change in the centromedian (CM) and anterior nucleus (AN) of the thalamus, using stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) recordings. METHODS: Forty habitual seizures were analyzed in nine patients with pediatric-onset neocortical drug-resistant epilepsy who underwent SEEG (age 2-25 y) with thalamic coverage. Both visual and quantitative analysis was used to evaluate ictal EEG signal in the cortex and thalamus. The amplitude and cortico-thalamic latencies of broadband frequencies at ictal onset were measured.
October 2023Depth of Radiographic Response and Time to Tumor Regrowth Predicts Overall Survival Following Anti-VEGF Therapy in Recurrent Glioblastoma.
Ellingson BM, Hagiwara A, Morris CJ, Cho NS, Oshima S, Sanvito F, Oughourlian TC, Telesca D, Raymond C, Abrey LE, Garcia J, Aftab DT, Hessel C, Rachmilewitz Minei T, Harats D, Nathanson DA, Wen PY, Cloughesy TF.
PURPOSE: Antiangiogenic therapies are known to cause high radiographic response rates due to reduction in vascular permeability resulting in a lower degree of contrast extravasation. In this study, we investigate the prognostic ability for model-derived parameters describing enhancing tumor volumetric dynamics to predict survival in recurrent glioblastoma treated with antiangiogenic therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: N = 276 patients in two phase II trials were used as training data, including bevacizumab ± irinotecan (NCT00345163) and cabozantinib (NCT00704288), and N = 74 patients in the bevacizumab arm of a phase III trial (NCT02511405) were used for validation. Enhancing volumes were estimated using T1 subtraction maps, and a biexponential model was used to estimate regrowth (g) and regression (d) rates, time to tumor regrowth (TTG), and the depth of response (DpR). Response characteristics were compared to diffusion MR phenotypes previously shown to predict survival.
October 2023Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangioscopy Interventions-Updates.
Haber ZM, Srinivasa RN, Lee EW.
Percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (PTCS) was initially described around the same time that peroral cholangioscopy (POSC) was developed. The cited utility attributed to PTCS is the ability to be utilized in the subset of patients with surgical proximal bowel anatomy, often precluding the use of traditional POSC. However, since first described, PTCS use has been limited due to a lack of physician awareness and a lack of procedure-specific equipment and supplies. With recent developments of PTSC-specific equipment, there has been an expansion in the possible interventions able to be performed during PTCS, resulting in a rapid increase in clinical use. This short review will serve as a comprehensive update of the previous and more recent novel interventions now able to be performed during PTCS.
October 2023Enhanced Spectral Resolution for Correlated Spectroscopic Imaging Using Inner-product and Covariance Transform: A Pilot Analysis of Metabolites and Lipids in Breast Cancer in vivo.
Joy A, Thomas MA.
Acquisition duration of correlated spectroscopy in vivo can be longer due to a large number of t1 increments along the indirect (F1) dimension. Limited number of t1 increments on the other hand leads to poor spectral resolution along F1. Covariance transformation (CT) instead of Fourier transform along t1 is an alternative way of increasing the resolution of the 2D COSY spectrum. Prospectively undersampled five-dimensional echo-planar correlated spectroscopic imaging (EP-COSI) data from ten malignant patients and ten healthy women were acquired and reconstructed using compressed sensing. The COSY spectrum at each voxel location was then generated using FFT, CT and a variant of CT called Inner Product (IP). Metabolite and lipid ratios were computed with respect to water from unsuppressed one-dimensional spectrum. The effects of t1-ridging artifacts commonly seen with FFT were not observed with CT/IP. Statistically significant differences were observed in the fat cross peaks measured with CT/IP/FFT. Spectral resolution was increased ~ 8.5 times (~ 19.53 Hz in FFT, ~ 2.32 Hz in CT/IP) without affecting the spectral width along F1 was possible with CT/IP. CT and IP enabled substantially increased F1 resolution effectively with significant gain in scan time and reliable measure of unsaturation index as a biomarker for malignant breast cancer.
October 2023Patients' Perspectives, Experiences, and Concerns With Perianal Fistulae: Insights From Online Targeted-Disease Forums.
Khalil C, van Deen WK, Dupuy T, Syal G, Arnold C, Cazzetta SE, Nazarey PP, Almario CV, Spiegel BMR.
BACKGROUND: Perianal fistulae can undermine physical, emotional, and social well-being in patients with Crohn's disease and are challenging to manage. Social media offers a rich opportunity to gain an in-depth understanding of the impact of perianal fistulae on patients' daily lives outside of controlled environments. In this study, we conducted social media analytics to examine patients' experiences with perianal fistulae and assessed the impact of perianal fistulae on patients' behavior and overall well-being. METHODS: We used a mixed-method approach to examine 119 986 publicly available posts collected from 10 Crohn's disease forums in the United States between January 01, 2010 and January 01, 2020. Discussions related to Crohn's perianal fistulae were retrieved. We randomly selected 700 posts and qualitatively analyzed them using an inductive thematic approach. We then applied a latent Dirichlet allocation probabilistic topic model to explore themes in an unsupervised manner on the collection of 119 986 posts.
October 2023Endovascular Transmural Access to Carotid Artery Perivascular Tissues: Safety Assessment of a Novel Technique.
Kim WJ, Samarage HM, Zarrin D, Goel K, Wang AC, Johnson J, Nael K, Colby GP.
BACKGROUND: Recent advances in endovascular devices have allowed access and targeting of perivascular tissues of the peripheral circulation. The perivascular tissues of the cervical and cranial circulations have many important structures of clinical significance, yet the feasibility and safety of such an approach has not been demonstrated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of a novel endovascular transmural approach to target the perivascular tissues of the common carotid artery in swine. METHODS: A micro-infusion device was positioned in the carotid arteries of three Yorkshire pigs (six carotid arteries in total), and each carotid artery was punctured 10 times in the same location to gain access to the perivascular tissues. Digital subtraction angiography was used to evaluate vessel injury or contrast extravasation. MRI and MR angiography were used to evaluate evidence of cerebral ischemia or vessel injury. Post-mortem tissue analysis was performed to assess the level of extravascular hematoma and intravascular dissection.
October 2023Lumbar Spinal Canal Segmentation in Cases with Lumbar Stenosis Using Deep-U-Net Ensembles.
Laiwalla AN, Ratnaparkhi A, Zarrin D, Cook K, Li I, Wilson B, Florence TJ, Yoo B, Salehi B, Gaonkar B, Beckett J, Macyszyn L.
BACKGROUND: Narrowing of the lumbar spinal canal, or lumbar stenosis (LS), may cause debilitating radicular pain or muscle weakness. It is the most frequent indication for spinal surgery in the elderly population. Modern diagnosis relies on magnetic resonance imaging and its inherently subjective interpretation. Diagnostic rigor, accuracy, and speed may be improved by automation. In this work, we aimed to determine whether a deep-U-Net ensemble trained to segment spinal canals on a heterogeneous mix of clinical data is comparable to radiologists' segmentation of these canals in patients with LS. METHODS: The deep U-nets were trained on spinal canals segmented by physicians on 100 axial T2 lumbar magnetic resonance imaging selected randomly from our institutional database. Test data included a total of 279 elderly patients with LS that were separate from the training set.
October 2023Optimizing Detection and Deep Learning-based Classification of Pathological High-frequency Oscillations in Epilepsy.
Monsoor T, Zhang Y, Daida A, Oana S, Lu Q, Hussain SA, Fallah A, Sankar R, Staba RJ, Speier W, Roychowdhury V, Nariai H.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore sensitive detection methods for pathological high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) to improve seizure outcomes in epilepsy surgery. METHODS: We analyzed interictal HFOs (80-500 Hz) in 15 children with medication-resistant focal epilepsy who underwent chronic intracranial electroencephalogram via subdural grids. The HFOs were assessed using the short-term energy (STE) and Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) detectors and examined for spike association and time-frequency plot characteristics. A deep learning (DL)-based classification was applied to purify pathological HFOs. Postoperative seizure outcomes were correlated with HFO-resection ratios to determine the optimal HFO detection method.
October 2023A Knowledge Graph Approach to Elucidate the Role of Organellar Pathways in Disease via Biomedical Reports.
Pelletier AR, Steinecke D, Sigdel D, Adam I, Caufield JH, Guevara-Gonzalez V, Ramirez J, Verma A, Bali K, Downs K, Wang W, Bui A, Ping P.
The rapidly increasing and vast quantities of biomedical reports, each containing numerous entities and rich information, represent a rich resource for biomedical text-mining applications. These tools enable investigators to integrate, conceptualize, and translate these discoveries to uncover new insights into disease pathology and therapeutics. In this protocol, we present CaseOLAP LIFT, a new computational pipeline to investigate cellular components and their disease associations by extracting user-selected information from text datasets (e.g., biomedical literature). The software identifies sub-cellular proteins and their functional partners within disease-relevant documents. Additional disease-relevant documents are identified via the software's label imputation method. To contextualize the resulting protein-disease associations and to integrate information from multiple relevant biomedical resources, a knowledge graph is automatically constructed for further analyses. We present one use case with a corpus of ~34 million text documents downloaded online to provide an example of elucidating the role of mitochondrial proteins in distinct cardiovascular disease phenotypes using this method. Furthermore, a deep learning model was applied to the resulting knowledge graph to predict previously unreported relationships between proteins and disease, resulting in 1,583 associations with predicted probabilities >0.90 and with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.91 on the test set. This software features a highly customizable and automated workflow, with a broad scope of raw data available for analysis; therefore, using this method, protein-disease associations can be identified with enhanced reliability within a text corpus.
October 2023Expanding Role of Advanced Image Analysis in CT-detected Indeterminate Pulmonary Nodules and Early Lung Cancer Characterization.
Prosper AE, Kammer MN, Maldonado F, Aberle DR, Hsu W.
The implementation of low-dose chest CT for lung screening presents a crucial opportunity to advance lung cancer care through early detection and interception. In addition, millions of pulmonary nodules are incidentally detected annually in the United States, increasing the opportunity for early lung cancer diagnosis. Yet, realization of the full potential of these opportunities is dependent on the ability to accurately analyze image data for purposes of nodule classification and early lung cancer characterization. This review presents an overview of traditional image analysis approaches in chest CT using semantic characterization as well as more recent advances in the technology and application of machine learning models using CT-derived radiomic features and deep learning architectures to characterize lung nodules and early cancers. Methodological challenges currently faced in translating these decision aids to clinical practice, as well as the technical obstacles of heterogeneous imaging parameters, optimal feature selection, choice of model, and the need for well-annotated image data sets for the purposes of training and validation, will be reviewed, with a view toward the ultimate incorporation of these potentially powerful decision aids into routine clinical practice.
October 2023Kommerell Diverticulum and Agenesis of the Left Common Carotid Artery in a Patient with Dysphagia: A Case Report
Wei B, Nguyen KL, Pogosyan A, El-Sherief A, Hazany S.
Kommerell diverticulum is the aneurysmal dilatation of the proximal descending aorta at the origin of an aberrant subclavian artery and may occur in either the left-sided or right-sided aortic arch. We report an unusual case of right-sided aortic arch with Kommerell diverticulum and concurrent agenesis of the left common carotid artery in a patient with progressive dysphagia to solid food. A brief overview of embryology, relevant anatomy, radiographic findings, and treatment options of Kommerell diverticulum are presented.
October 2023Survey on Management of Unilateral Axillary Lymphadenopathy after Recent Ipsilateral COVID-19 Vaccination
Wilsen CB, Ikeda DM, Ojeda-Fournier H, Hovanessian Larsen LJ, Trinh L, Joe BN, Fischer CP, Sheth PA, Sohlich RE, Rosen EL, Downey JR, Aminololama-Shakeri S, Yamashita MW, Tsai IS, Chalfant JS.
BACKGROUND: In the setting of widespread COVID-19 vaccination and booster administration, there is an increased incidence of axillary lymphadenopathy identified during breast imaging. PURPOSE: To investigate how breast imaging radiologists manage unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy (UAL) after a recent ipsilateral COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: A 26-question survey was distributed to 12 California breast imaging facilities in June 2022.
October 2023Single-Cell Characterization of Pulmonary Nodules Implicates Suppression of Immunosurveillance across Early Stages of Lung Adenocarcinoma.
Yanagawa J, Tran LM, Salehi-Rad R, Lim RJ, Dumitras C, Fung E, Wallace WD, Prosper AE, Fishbein G, Shea C, Hong R, Kahangi B, Deng JJ, Gower AC, Liu B, Campbell JD, Mazzilli SA, Beane JE, Kadara H, Lenburg ME, Spira AE, Aberle DR, Krysan K, Dubinett SM.
A greater understanding of molecular, cellular, and immunological changes during the early stages of lung adenocarcinoma development could improve diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in patients with pulmonary nodules at risk for lung cancer. To elucidate the immunopathogenesis of early lung tumorigenesis, we evaluated surgically resected pulmonary nodules representing the spectrum of early lung adenocarcinoma as well as associated normal lung tissues using single-cell RNA sequencing and validated the results by flow cytometry and multiplex immunofluorescence (MIF). Single-cell transcriptomics revealed a significant decrease in gene expression associated with cytolytic activities of tumor-infiltrating natural killer and natural killer T cells. This was accompanied by a reduction in effector T cells and an increase of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Treg) in subsolid nodules. An independent set of resected pulmonary nodules consisting of both adenocarcinomas and associated premalignant lesions corroborated the early increment of Tregs in premalignant lesions compared with the associated normal lung tissues by MIF. Gene expression analysis indicated that cancer-associated alveolar type 2 cells and fibroblasts may contribute to the deregulation of the extracellular matrix, potentially affecting immune infiltration in subsolid nodules through ligand-receptor interactions. These findings suggest that there is a suppression of immune surveillance across the spectrum of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma.
October 2023Hemostatic Patch with Ultra-strengthened Mechanical Properties for Efficient Adhesion to Wet Surfaces.
Zheng Y, Shariati K, Ghovvati M, Vo S, Origer N, Imahori T, Kaneko N, Annabi N.
Controlling traumatic bleeding from damaged internal organs while effectively sealing the wound is critical for saving the lives of patients. Existing bioadhesives suffer from blood incompatibility, insufficient adhesion to wet surfaces, weak mechanical properties, and complex application procedures. Here, we engineered a ready-to-use hemostatic bioadhesive with ultra-strengthened mechanical properties and fatigue resistance, robust adhesion to wet tissues within a few seconds of gentle pressing, deformability to accommodate physiological function and action, and the ability to stop bleeding efficiently. The engineered hydrogel, which demonstrated high elasticity (>900%) and toughness (>4600 kJ/m3), was formed by fine-tuning a series of molecular interactions and crosslinking mechanisms involving N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) conjugated alginate (Alg-NHS), poly (ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA), tannic acid (TA), and Fe3+ ions. Dual adhesive moieties including mussel-inspired pyrogallol/catechol and NHS synergistically enhanced wet tissue adhesion (>400 kPa in a wound closure test). In conjunction with physical sealing, the high affinity of TA/Fe3+ for blood could further augment hemostasis. The engineered bioadhesive demonstrated excellent in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility as well as improved hemostatic efficacy as compared to commercial Surgicel®. Overall, the hydrogel design strategy described herein holds great promise for overcoming existing obstacles impeding clinical translation of engineered hemostatic bioadhesives.
September 2023A Role for Breast Ultrasound Artificial Intelligence Decision Support in the Evaluation of Small Invasive Lobular Carcinomas.
Amir T, Coffey K, Sevilimedu V, Fardanesh R, Mango VL.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of an Artificial Intelligence (AI) decision support (DS) system in the ultrasound (US) assessment of invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) of the breast, a cancer that can demonstrate variable appearance and present insidiously. METHODS: Retrospective review was performed of 75 patients with 83 ILC diagnosed by core biopsy or surgery between November 2017 and November 2019. ILC characteristics (size, shape, echogenicity) were recorded. AI DS output (lesion characteristics, likelihood of malignancy) was compared to radiologist assessment.
September 2023The Future Glioblastoma Clinical Trials Landscape: Early Phase 0, Window of Opportunity, and Adaptive Phase I-III Studies.
Cho NS, Wong WK, Nghiemphu PL, Cloughesy TF, Ellingson BM.
PURPOSE of REVIEW: Innovative clinical trial designs for glioblastoma (GBM) are needed to expedite drug discovery. Phase 0, window of opportunity, and adaptive designs have been proposed, but their advanced methodologies and underlying biostatistics are not widely known. This review summarizes phase 0, window of opportunity, and adaptive phase I-III clinical trial designs in GBM tailored to physicians. RECENT FINDINGS: Phase 0, window of opportunity, and adaptive trials are now being implemented for GBM. These trials can remove ineffective therapies earlier during drug development and improve trial efficiency. There are two ongoing adaptive platform trials: GBM Adaptive Global Innovative Learning Environment (GBM AGILE) and the INdividualized Screening trial of Innovative GBM Therapy (INSIGhT). The future clinical trials landscape in GBM will increasingly involve phase 0, window of opportunity, and adaptive phase I-III studies. Continued collaboration between physicians and biostatisticians will be critical for implementing these trial designs.
September 2023Value of Subspecialist Second Opinion Reads of 18 F-FDG PET-CT Examinations for Patients with Breast Cancer.
Fardanesh R, Beavers K, Jochelson MS, Ulaner GA.
OBJECTIVES: Determine if subspecialist second opinion review alters reporting of malignancy on 18 F-FDG PET/CT for patients with breast cancer. METHODS: This IRB-approved retrospective study compared 248 s opinion reads of 18 F-FDG PET/CT exams performed for patients with breast cancer against the original outside institution reports. Subspecialist reviews documented if malignant findings on the outside report were believed to be malignant and noted additional malignant findings not described on the outside report. Reference standard for malignancy or benignity was determined by pathology or follow-up imaging.
September 2023RECIST 1.1 Target Lesion Categorical Response in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Comparison of Conventional versus Volumetric Assessment.
Gong AJ, Ruchalski K, Kim HJ, Douek M, Gutierrez A, Patel M, Sai V, Coy H, Villegas B, Raman S, Goldin J.
Purpose To investigate Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 (RECIST 1.1) approximations of target lesion tumor burden by comparing categorical treatment response according to conventional RECIST versus actual tumor volume measurements of RECIST target lesions. Materials and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study of individuals with metastatic renal cell carcinoma enrolled in a clinical trial (from 2003 to 2017) and includes individuals who underwent baseline and at least one follow-up chest, abdominal, and pelvic CT study and with at least one target lesion. Target lesion volume was assessed by (a) Vmodel, a spherical model of conventional RECIST 1.1, which was extrapolated from RECIST diameter, and (b) Vactual, manually contoured volume. Volumetric responses were determined by the sum of target lesion volumes (Vmodel-sum TL and Vactual-sum TL, respectively). Categorical volumetric thresholds were extrapolated from RECIST. McNemar tests were used to compare categorical volume responses. Results Target lesions were assessed at baseline (638 participants), week 9 (593 participants), and week 17 (508 participants). Vmodel-sum TL classified more participants as having progressive disease (PD), compared with Vactual-sum TL at week 9 (52 vs 31 participants) and week 17 (57 vs 39 participants), with significant overall response discordance (P < .001). At week 9, 25 (48%) of 52 participants labeled with PD by Vmodel-sum TL were classified as having stable disease by Vactual-sum TL. Conclusion A model of RECIST 1.1 based on a single diameter measurement more frequently classified PD compared with response assessment by actual measured tumor volume.
September 2023Clinical, Imaging, and Biomarker Evidence of Amyloid- and Tau-related Neurodegeneration in Late-onset Epilepsy of Unknown Etiology.
Hickman LB, Stern JM, Silverman DHS, Salamon N, Vossel K.
Accumulating evidence suggests amyloid and tau-related neurodegeneration may play a role in development of late-onset epilepsy of unknown etiology (LOEU). In this article, we review recent evidence that epilepsy may be an initial manifestation of an amyloidopathy or tauopathy that precedes development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with LOEU demonstrate an increased risk of cognitive decline, and patients with AD have increased prevalence of preceding epilepsy. Moreover, investigations of LOEU that use CSF biomarkers and imaging techniques have identified preclinical neurodegeneration with evidence of amyloid and tau deposition. Overall, findings to date suggest a relationship between acquired, non-lesional late-onset epilepsy and amyloid and tau-related neurodegeneration, which supports that preclinical or prodromal AD is a distinct etiology of late-onset epilepsy. We propose criteria for assessing elevated risk of developing dementia in patients with late-onset epilepsy utilizing clinical features, available imaging techniques, and biomarker measurements. Further research is needed to validate these criteria and assess optimal treatment strategies for patients with probable epileptic preclinical AD and epileptic prodromal AD.
September 2023Impact of E-ASPECTS Software on the Performance of Physicians Compared to a Consensus Ground Truth: A Multi-reader, Multi-case Study.
Kobeissi H, Kallmes DF, Benson J, Nagelschneider A, Madhavan A, Messina SA, Schwartz K, Campeau N, Carr CM, Nasr DM, Braksick S, Scharf EL, Klaas J, Woodhead ZVJ, Harston G, Briggs J, Joly O, Gerry S, Kuhn AL, Kostas AA, Nael K, AbdalKader M, Kadirvel R, Brinjikji W.
BACKGROUND: The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) is used to quantify the extent of injury to the brain following acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and to inform treatment decisions. The e-ASPECTS software uses artificial intelligence methods to automatically process non-contrast CT (NCCT) brain scans from patients with AIS affecting the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory and generate an ASPECTS. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of e-ASPECTS (Brainomix, Oxford, UK) on the performance of US physicians compared to a consensus ground truth. METHODS: The study used a multi-reader, multi-case design. A total of 10 US board-certified physicians (neurologists and neuroradiologists) scored 54 NCCT brain scans of patients with AIS affecting the MCA territory. Each reader scored each scan on two occasions: once with and once without reference to the e-ASPECTS software, in random order. Agreement with a reference standard (expert consensus read with reference to follow-up imaging) was evaluated with and without software support.
September 2023An Analysis of the Regional Heterogeneity in Tissue Elasticity in Lung Cancer Patients with COPD.
Lauria M, Stiehl B, Santhanam A, O'Connell D, Naumann L, McNitt-Gray M, Raldow A, Goldin J, Barjaktarevic I, Low DA.
PURPOSE: Recent advancements in obtaining image-based biomarkers from CT images have enabled lung function characterization, which could aid in lung interventional planning. However, the regional heterogeneity in these biomarkers has not been well documented, yet it is critical to several procedures for lung cancer and COPD. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the interlobar and intralobar heterogeneity of tissue elasticity and study their relationship with COPD severity. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a set of 23 lung cancer patients for this study, 14 of whom had COPD. For each patient, we employed a 5DCT scanning protocol to obtain end-exhalation and end-inhalation images and semi-automatically segmented the lobes. We calculated tissue elasticity using a biomechanical property estimation model. To obtain a measure of lobar elasticity, we calculated the mean of the voxel-wise elasticity values within each lobe. To analyze interlobar heterogeneity, we defined an index that represented the properties of the least elastic lobe as compared to the rest of the lobes, termed the Elasticity Heterogeneity Index (EHI). An index of 0 indicated total homogeneity, and higher indices indicated higher heterogeneity. Additionally, we measured intralobar heterogeneity by calculating the coefficient of variation of elasticity within each lobe.
September 2023Early Pregnancy Imaging Predicts Ischemic Placental Disease.
Lee B, Janzen C, Aliabadi AR, Lei MYY, Wu H, Liu D, Vangala SS, Devaskar SU, Sung K.
INTRODUCTION: To characterize early-gestation changes in placental structure, perfusion, and oxygenation in the context of ischemic placental disease (IPD) as a composite outcome and in individual sub-groups. METHODS: In a single-center prospective cohort study, 199 women were recruited from antenatal clinics between February 2017 and February 2019. Maternal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the placenta were temporally conducted at two timepoints: 14-16 weeks gestational age (GA) and 19-24 weeks GA. The pregnancy was monitored via four additional study visits, including at delivery. Placental volume, perfusion, and oxygenation were assessed at both MRI timepoints. The primary outcome was defined as pregnancy complicated by IPD, with group assignment confirmed after delivery.
September 2023Diagnostic Guidelines for Usual Interstitial Pneumonia and Progressive Pulmonary Fibrosis.
Oh AS, Lynch DA.
September 2023Derivation of a High-resolution CT-based, Semi-automated Radiographic Score in Tuberculosis and Its Relationship to Bacillary Load and Antitubercular Therapy.
Riou C, du Bruyn E, Kim GHJ, da Costa I, Lee J, Sher A, Wilkinson RJ, Allwood BW, Goldin J.
September 2023NUTMEG: A Randomized Phase II Study of Nivolumab and Temozolomide versus Temozolomide Alone in Newly Diagnosed Older Patients with Glioblastoma.
Sim HW, Wachsmuth L, Barnes EH, Yip S, Koh ES, Hall M, Jennens R, Ashley DM, Verhaak RG, Heimberger AB, Rosenthal MA, Hovey EJ, Ellingson BM, Tognela A, Gan HK, Wheeler H, Back M, McDonald KL, Long A, Cuff K, Begbie S, Gedye C, Mislang A, Le H, Johnson MO, Kong BY, Simes JR, Lwin Z, Khasraw M.
BACKGROUND: There is an immunologic rationale to evaluate immunotherapy in the older glioblastoma population, who have been underrepresented in prior trials. The NUTMEG study evaluated the combination of nivolumab and temozolomide in patients with glioblastoma aged 65 years and older. METHODS: NUTMEG was a multicenter 2:1 randomized phase II trial for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma aged 65 years and older. The experimental arm consisted of hypofractionated chemoradiation with temozolomide, then adjuvant nivolumab and temozolomide. The standard arm consisted of hypofractionated chemoradiation with temozolomide, then adjuvant temozolomide. The primary objective was to improve overall survival (OS) in the experimental arm.
September 2023Focal Therapy of Prostate Cancer: Assessment with Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen (PSMA) Imaging.
Topoozian M, Calais J, Felker E, Sisk A, Gonzalez S, Lee SJ, Marks LS.
Focal therapy of prostate cancer (PCa) is currently of great interest, but a metric of success. other than biopsy, is not yet available. In a patient with a repeatedly negative MRI and negative systematic biopsies, a scan employing the radioisotope 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT identified a PSMA-avid hotspot in the prostate. PSMA-guided biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of a clinically-significant PCa. Following ablation of the lesion with high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), the PSMA-avid lesion disappeared and targeted biopsy confirmed a fibrotic scar with no residual cancer. PSMA imaging may have a role in guiding diagnosis, focal ablation, and follow-up of men with PCa.
September 2023Gene Expression Profiles of Ischemic Stroke Clots Retrieved by Mechanical Thrombectomy are Associated with Disease Etiology.
Tutino VM, Fricano S, Chien A, Patel TR, Monteiro A, Rai HH, Dmytriw AA, Chaves LD, Waqas M, Levy EI, Poppenberg KE, Siddiqui AH.
BACKGROUND: Determining stroke etiology is crucial for secondary prevention, but intensive workups fail to classify ~30% of strokes that are cryptogenic. OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that the transcriptomic profiles of clots retrieved during mechanical thrombectomy are unique to strokes of different subtypes. METHODS: We isolated RNA from the clots of 73 patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy. Samples of sufficient quality were subjected to 100-cycle, paired-end RNAseq, and transcriptomes with less than 10 million unique reads were excluded from analysis. Significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between subtypes (defined by the Trial of Org 10 172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) were identified by expression analysis in edgeR. Gene ontology enrichment analysis was used to study the biologic differences between stroke etiologies.
September 2023Integration and Evaluation of Chest X-ray Artificial Intelligence in Clinical Practice.
Wong KP, Homer SY, Wei SH, Yaghmai N, Estrada Paz OA, Young TJ, Buhr RG, Barjaktarevic I, Shrestha L, Daly M, Goldin J, Enzmann DR, Brown MS.
PURPOSE: To integrate and evaluate an artificial intelligence (AI) system that assists in checking endotracheal tube (ETT) placement on chest x-rays (CXRs) in clinical practice. APPROACH: In clinical use over 17 months, 214 CXR images were ordered to check ETT placement with AI assistance by intensive care unit (ICU) physicians. The system was built on the SimpleMind Cognitive AI platform and integrated into a clinical workflow. It automatically identified the ETT and checked its placement relative to the trachea and carina. The ETT overlay and misplacement alert messages generated by the AI system were compared with radiology reports as the reference. A survey study was also conducted to evaluate usefulness of the AI system in clinical practice.
August 2023MRI-guided Interventional Procedures: Current Use and Future Potentials.
Afshari Mirak S, Raman SS.
Magnetic resonance imaging–guided (MRI-guided) interventional procedures include a range of procedures such as biopsy, needle placement, focused or directional targeting and monitoring for thermal ablation, and guidance of guidewires and catheters intra- and extra-vascularly. MRI-guided breast and prostate biopsies are now routinely performed for MR-detected and graded lesions. The American College of Radiology (ACR) recommends MRI-guided biopsy for selected breast cancer (BCa) lesions visualized only by MRI. On the other hand, prostate cancer (PCa) detection and treatment have been revolutionized by MRI . MRI is now the standard for the detection and characterization of the most aggressive PCa lesions and MRI-guided biopsy, whether in-bore or by fusion guidance with ultrasound (US), enables improved detection of clinically significant PCa (csPCa) compared to conventional transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) .
August 2023National Cancer Institute Collaborative Workshop on Shaping the Landscape of Brain Metastases Research: Challenges and Recommended Priorities.
Kim MM, Mehta MP, Smart DK, Steeg PS, Hong JA, Espey MG, Prasanna PG, Crandon L, Hodgdon C, Kozak N, Armstrong TS, Morikawa A, Willmarth N, Tanner K, Boire A, Gephart MH, Margolin KA, Hattangadi-Gluth J, Tawbi H, Trifiletti DM, Chung C, Basu-Roy U, Burns R, Oliva ICG, Aizer AA, Anders CK, Davis J, Ahluwalia MS, Chiang V, Li J, Kotecha R, Formenti SC, Ellingson BM, Gondi V, Sperduto PW, Barnholtz-Sloan JS, Rodon J, Lee EQ, Khasraw M, Yeboa DN, Brastianos PK, Galanis E, Coleman CN, Ahmed MM.
Brain metastases are an increasing global public health concern, even as survival rates improve for patients with metastatic disease. Both metastases and the sequelae of their treatment are key determinants of the inter-related priorities of patient survival, function, and quality of life, mandating a multidimensional approach to clinical care and research. At a virtual National Cancer Institute Workshop in September, 2022, key stakeholders convened to define research priorities to address the crucial areas of unmet need for patients with brain metastases to achieve meaningful advances in patient outcomes. This Policy Review outlines existing knowledge gaps, collaborative opportunities, and specific recommendations regarding consensus priorities and future directions in brain metastases research. Achieving major advances in research will require enhanced coordination between the ongoing efforts of individual organisations and consortia. Importantly, the continual and active engagement of patients and patient advocates will be necessary to ensure that the directionality of all efforts reflects what is most meaningful in the context of patient care.
August 2023Low-grade B-cell Lymphoma of the Central Nervous System with Plasmacytic Differentiation and Amyloid Deposition.
Lopez G, Han K, Magaki SD, Song SX, Salamon N, Kahlon KS, Keselman I, Bari AA, Vinters HV.
A 65-year-old woman with a resolved history of epilepsy due to a motor vehicle accident and hippocampal sclerosis presented with recurrent de novo seizures. Brain imaging demonstrated enhancement in the left parieto-occipital lobe. At histopathological examination, the lesion displayed a diffuse lymphoid infiltrate comprised of small atypical lymphocytes, plasmacytoid lymphocytes, and scattered plasma cells with amyloid deposition. Pathology workup demonstrated a monotypic B-cell phenotype of the lymphoid infiltrate, expressing lambda light chain restriction and plasmacytic differentiation without MYD88 mutations. The patient had no systemic evidence of lymphoma, plasma cell dyscrasia, or amyloidosis. A diagnosis of low-grade B-cell lymphoma of the central nervous system with plasmacytic differentiation and amyloid deposition was made.
August 2023Amygdala Subfield and Prefrontal Cortex Abnormalities in Patients with Functional Seizures.
Nasrullah N, Kerr WT, Stern JM, Wang Y, Tatekawa H, Lee JK, Karimi AH, Sreenivasan SS, Engel J Jr, Eliashiv DE, Feusner JD, Salamon N, Savic I.
BACKGROUND: Functional seizures (FS) are paroxysmal episodes, resembling epileptic seizures, but without underlying epileptic abnormality. The aetiology and neuroanatomic associations are incompletely understood. Recent brain imaging data indicate cerebral changes, however, without clarifying possible pathophysiology. In the present study, we specifically investigated the neuroanatomic changes in subregions of the amygdala and hippocampus in FS. METHODS: T1 MRI scans of 37 female patients with FS and 37 age-matched female seizure naïve controls (SNC) were analyzed retrospectively in FreeSurfer version 7.1. Seizure naïve controls included patients with depression and anxiety disorders. The analysis included whole-brain cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, and subfields of the amygdala and hippocampus. Group comparisons were carried out using multivariable linear models.
August 2023Lung Cancer Screening Among Mammography Patients: Knowledge, Eligibility, Participation, and Interest.
Novogrodsky E, Haramati LB, Villasana-Gomez GM, Goldman J, Rosenfeld C, Rosenblum JK, Sayre JW, Hoyt AC, Goldin JG, Milch HS.
OBJECTIVE: To determine lung cancer screening eligibility, knowledge, and interest and to quantify the effect of the expanded 2021 lung cancer screening eligibility criteria among women presenting for screening mammography, a group with demonstrable interest in cancer screening. METHODS: A single-page survey was distributed to patients presenting for screening mammography, from January-March 2020 and June 2020-January 2021, at 2 academic medical centers on the East and West Coasts. The population served by the East Coast institution has greater poverty, greater ethnic/racial diversity, and lower education levels. Survey questions included age, smoking history, lung cancer screening knowledge, participation, and interest. Lung cancer screening eligibility was determined for both 2013 and 2021 USPSTF guidelines. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and data were compared between groups using the Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, and the 2-sample t test.
August 2023Variability Among Breast Cancer Risk Classification Models When Applied at the Level of the Individual Woman.
Paige JS, Lee CI, Wang PC, Hsu W, Brentnall AR, Hoyt AC, Naeim A, Elmore JG.
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer risk models guide screening and chemoprevention decisions, but the extent and effect of variability among models, particularly at the individual level, is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the accuracy and disagreement between commonly used risk models in categorizing individual women as average vs. high risk for developing invasive breast cancer. DESIGN: Comparison of three risk prediction models: Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT), Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) model, and International Breast Intervention Study (IBIS) model. SUBJECTS: Women 40 to 74 years of age presenting for screening mammography at a multisite health system between 2011 and 2015, with 5-year follow-up for cancer outcome. MAIN MEASURES: Comparison of model discrimination and calibration at the population level and inter-model agreement for 5-year breast cancer risk at the individual level using two cutoffs (≥ 1.67% and ≥ 3.0%).
August 2023Placenta Accreta Spectrum: The Role of Interventional Radiology in Multidisciplinary Management.
Sanders TK, Stewart JK.
Placenta accreta spectrum is increasing in prevalence and poses significant risks to obstetric patients. This article defines characteristics, diagnosis, management, and outcomes of placenta accreta spectrum, highlighting interventional radiology's role in its management as part of a multidisciplinary approach.
August 2023Cortical Thickness, Gray-white Matter Contrast, and Intracortical Myelin in First-episode Schizophrenia Patients Treated with Long-acting Paliperidone Palmitate versus Oral Antipsychotics.
Wang C, Tishler TA, Nuechterlein KH, Ellingson BM.
This longitudinal study evaluated the cortical thickness, gray-to-white matter contrast (GWC), and frontal lobe intracortical myelin (ICM) volume in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients treated with oral antipsychotics (OAP) versus a long-acting injectable antipsychotic, paliperidone palmitate (PP). 2D proton density and inversion recovery images, and 3D T1-weighted MPRAGE images were acquired at 3T from 68 FES patients in a randomized clinical trial with PP vs OAP. At baseline, no differences in GWC and ICM were observed between FES patients and HCs, but the thickness of the left precuneus, the right transverse temporal gyrus, and the bilateral superior temporal gyri was found to be thinner in FES patients relative to HCs. Following 9 months of antipsychotics, OAP treatment, compared to PP treatment, resulted in a more widespread cortical thickness reduction including the right lateral occipital and orbitofrontal gyri. No significant ICM and GWC changes were observed in the PP group, whereas OAP treatment led to a significant ICM volume decrease and GWC increase. A negative correlation was found between ICM changes and GWC changes within multiple frontal regions after 9 months of OAP treatment. These preliminary findings suggest that PP treatment might aid preservation of brain morphology.
August 2023Diffusion Weighted Imaging in Spine Tumors.
Yildiz S, Schecht M, Aggarwal A, Nael K, Doshi A, Pawha PS.
Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has developed into a powerful tool for the evaluation of spine tumors, particularly for the assessment of vertebral marrow lesions and intramedullary tumors. Advances in magnetic resonance techniques have improved the quality of spine DWI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in recent years, with increased reproducibility and utilization. DTI, with quantitative parameters such as fractional anisotropy and qualitative visual assessment of nerve fiber tracts, can play a valuable role in the evaluation and surgical planning of spinal cord tumors. These widely available techniques can be used to enhance the diagnostic evaluation of spinal tumors.
August 2023The Impact of Renal Function on Hepatic Encephalopathy Following TIPS Placement for Refractory Ascites.
Zhao M, Saab S, Craw C, Lee EW.
BACKGROUND: The impact of renal function on hepatic encephalopathy (HE) following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement for refractory ascites is poorly understood. We investigated the role of renal function on HE following TIPS placement. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed for patients undergoing TIPS for refractory ascites from 2007-2019. Patients were stratified by GFR at time of TIPS placement and by whether they were on hemodialysis (HD). Chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3 or higher was defined as pre-TIPS GFR < 60 for at least 3 months. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify the role of GFR and CKD at time of TIPS placement on HE within 60 days post TIPS placement.
July 2023Incidental Asymptomatic Breast Hemangioma in a 69-Year-Old Man: A Case Report
Bayginejad S, Choi HW, Tsai IS
Breast hemangiomas are benign vascular tumors that are infrequently identified in male patients. Most of the reported cases of hemangiomas in male breasts have been identified in symptomatic patients who presented with a palpable lump in the breast. We present a case of an incidentally discovered hemangioma in an asymptomatic male patient, raising the possibility that male breast hemangiomas may be more prevalent than originally thought.
July 2023NCCN Guidelines® Insights: Biliary Tract Cancers, Version 2.2023.
Benson AB, D'Angelica MI, Abrams T, Abbott DE, Ahmed A, Anaya DA, Anders R, Are C, Bachini M, Binder D, Borad M, Bowlus C, Brown D, Burgoyne A, Castellanos J, Chahal P, Cloyd J, Covey AM, Glazer ES, Hawkins WG, Iyer R, Jacob R, Jennings L, Kelley RK, Kim R, Levine M, Palta M, Park JO, Raman S, Reddy S, Ronnekleiv-Kelly S, Sahai V, Singh G, Stein S, Turk A, Vauthey JN, Venook AP, Yopp A, McMillian N, Schonfeld R, Hochstetler C.
In 2023, the NCCN Guidelines for Hepatobiliary Cancers were divided into 2 separate guidelines: Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Biliary Tract Cancers. The NCCN Guidelines for Biliary Tract Cancers provide recommendations for the evaluation and comprehensive care of patients with gallbladder cancer, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The multidisciplinary panel of experts meets at least on an annual basis to review requests from internal and external entities as well as to evaluate new data on current and emerging therapies. These Guidelines Insights focus on some of the recent updates to the NCCN Guidelines for Biliary Tract Cancers as well as the newly published section on principles of molecular testing.
July 2023Magnetic Resonance Imaging is Safe in Patients with Left Bundle Branch Pacing.
Bernardes-Souza B, Bhatt RV, Bayoneta AJS, Seo J, Finn JP, Mori S, Do DH, Boyle NG.
BACKGROUND: The use of left bundle branch pacing (LBBP) has dramatically increased since it was first described in 2016, but to date there are no published data on the safety of performing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in these patients. METHODS: Patients with LBBP who underwent MRI between January 2016 and October 2022 were retrospectively studied in our clinical center, which has a special program for imaging patients with cardiac devices. All patients underwent close cardiac monitoring throughout the MRI scans. Occurrence of arrhythmias or other adverse effects during MRI were assessed. LBBP lead parameters immediately pre- and post-MRI and at an outpatient follow-up were compared.
July 2023To Scan or Not to Scan: Effect of Scanning the Axilla of All Patients Undergoing Diagnostic Breast Ultrasound.
Chen I, Kitich A, Joines M, Sayre J, Dascalos J, Hoyt A, Milch H.
BACKGROUND: Breast ultrasonography is a useful modality in patients undergoing diagnostic and screening breast imaging. However, breast ultrasound has a high false positive rate and can be time-consuming to perform. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical impact of incidental axillary findings found on diagnostic breast ultrasounds at a single multi-site institution that has a standard protocol of scanning the axilla for all breast ultrasound exams. METHODS: All diagnostic breast ultrasounds were retrospectively reviewed from January 2017 to September 2019. Follow-up imaging, relevant clinical history, and pathology results were also reviewed. All positive axillary findings were divided into incidental or non-incidental findings depending on whether there was a direct clinical indication to scan the axilla. Descriptive statistics were performed with a 5% level of significance.
July 2023Invited Commentary: Nephron-Sparing Interventions for Renal Tumors: Longitudinal Imaging-Based Prediction of Treatment Efficacy.
Chung A, Raman SS.
Nephron-sparing interventions are the standard of care for treating incidentally detected stage 1 renal cancers that require definitive treatment because of improved postsurgical morbidity, including renal function, and improved disease-specific and overall mortality(1,2). Laparoscopic robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy is now the main surgical technique for nephron-sparing intervention. A variety of percutaneous thermal ablation procedures, including radiofrequency and microwave ablation, cryoablation, and electrical ablative techniques such as irreversible electroporation, have shown excellent outcomes in the treatment of renal tumors(3). Newer interventional techniques include high-intensity focused US, pulsed electrical fields, and histotripsy. Because of the unique anatomy of the kidney and surrounding structures, the knowledge, diagnosis, and management of common and specific surgical and interventional procedural-related complications are important for radiologists and clinicians to be aware of to promote timely diagnosis and mitigation of potential adverse outcomes.
July 2023Hemorrhagic Infarct of Torted Ovary: A Case Report
Clarke JE, Shahrouki P, Depetris J, Patel M
Ovarian torsion, the twisting of the ovary on its supporting tissues, occurs primarily in premenopausal women, causing acute abdominal or pelvic pain. Without prompt diagnosis and surgical intervention, adnexal torsion may lead to ovarian infarction and a resulting reduction in fertility. Radiologic methodologies including ultrasound, color Doppler ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can play key roles in the diagnosis of this entity by allowing for the visualization of blood flow to the ovary.
July 2023Massive Idiopathic Nonsurgical Pneumoperitoneum with the Football Sign in a Preterm Infant: A Case Report
Elliott RJ, Ghahremani Koureh S
Pneumoperitoneum is the abnormal presence of air in the peritoneal cavity. In cases of massive pneumoperitoneum, abdominal radiographs may reveal "the football sign," which results from air outlining the abdominal cavity and surrounding the falciform ligament. Although most cases of pneumoperitoneum result from visceral perforation, there is increased awareness of other causes, resulting in an entity referred to as nonsurgical pneumoperitoneum (NSP). We report a case of nonsurgical pneumoperitoneum with a football sign on supine radiographs in a preterm 1-month-old infant who had a complex medical history. The patient developed sepsis and underwent an exploratory laparotomy, which ruled out perforation as well as any intra-abdominal cause for the pneumoperitoneum and infection.
July 2023PSMA PET Tumor-to-Salivary Gland Ratio to Predict Response to [177Lu]PSMA Radioligand Therapy: An International Multicenter Retrospective Study.
Hotta M, Gafita A, Murthy V, Benz MR, Sonni I, Burger IA, Eiber M, Emmett L, Farolfi A, Fendler WP, Weber MM, Hofman MS, Hope TA, Kratochwil C, Czernin J, Calais J.
Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-targeted radioligand therapy can improve the outcome of patients with advanced metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, but patients do not respond uniformly. We hypothesized that using the salivary glands as a reference organ can enable selective patient stratification. We aimed to establish a PSMA PET tumor-to-salivary gland ratio (PSG score) to predict outcomes after [177Lu]PSMA. Methods: In total, 237 men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with [177Lu]PSMA were included. A quantitative PSG (qPSG) score (SUVmean ratio of whole-body tumor to parotid glands) was semiautomatically calculated on baseline [68Ga]PSMA-11 PET images. Patients were divided into 3 groups: high (qPSG > 1.5), intermediate (qPSG = 0.5-1.5), and low (qPSG < 0.5) scores. Ten readers interpreted the 3-dimensional maximum-intensity-projection baseline [68Ga]PSMA-11 PET images and classified patients into 3 groups based on visual PSG (vPSG) score: high (most of the lesions showed higher uptake than the parotid glands) intermediate (neither low nor high), and low (most of the lesions showed lower uptake than the parotid glands). Outcome data included a more than 50% prostate-specific antigen decline, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression-free survival, and overall survival (OS).
July 2023Ensemble Learning for Breast Cancer Lesion Classification: A Pilot Validation Using Correlated Spectroscopic Imaging and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging.
Joy A, Lin M, Joines M, Saucedo A, Lee-Felker S, Baker J, Chien A, Emir U, Macey PM, Thomas MA.
The main objective of this work was to evaluate the application of individual and ensemble machine learning models to classify malignant and benign breast masses using features from two-dimensional (2D) correlated spectroscopy spectra extracted from five-dimensional echo-planar correlated spectroscopic imaging (5D EP-COSI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Twenty-four different metabolite and lipid ratios with respect to diagonal fat peaks (1.4 ppm, 5.4 ppm) from 2D spectra, and water and fat peaks (4.7 ppm, 1.4 ppm) from one-dimensional non-water-suppressed (NWS) spectra were used as the features. Additionally, water fraction, fat fraction and water-to-fat ratios from NWS spectra and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) from DWI were included. The nine most important features were identified using recursive feature elimination, sequential forward selection and correlation analysis.
July 2023Part 1: Mucormycosis: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Clinical Features, and Diagnosis.
Lynch JP 3rd, Fishbein MC, Abtin F, Zhanel GG.
INTRODUCTION: Mucormycosis (MCR) is caused by filamentous molds within the Class Zygomycetes and Order Mucorales. Infections can result from inhalation of spores into the nares, oropharynx, or lungs, ingestion of contaminated food or water, or inoculation into disrupted skin or wounds. In developed countries, MCR occurs primarily in severely immunocompromised hosts. In contrast, in developing/low income countries, most cases of MCR occur in persons with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and some cases in immunocompetent subjects following trauma. Mucormycosis exhibits a propensity to invade blood vessels, leading to thrombosis and infarction of tissue. Mortality rates associated with invasive MCR are high and can exceed 90% with disseminated disease. Mucormycosis can be classified as one of six forms: (1) rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM); (2) pulmonary; (3) cutaneous; (4) gastrointestinal or renal (5); disseminated; or (6) uncommon (focal) sites. AREAS COVERED: The authors discuss the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical features of mucormycosis. A literature search of mucormycosis was performed via PubMed (up to November 2022), using the key words: invasivefungal infections; mold; mucormycosis;Mucorales; Zyzomyces; Zygomycosis; Rhizopus, diagnosis.
July 2023Change in Volumetric Tumor Growth Rate After Cytotoxic Therapy is Predictive of Overall Survival in Recurrent Glioblastoma.
Oshima S, Hagiwara A, Raymond C, Wang C, Cho NS, Lu J, Eldred BSC, Nghiemphu PL, Lai A, Telesca D, Salamon N, Cloughesy TF, Ellingson BM.
BACKGROUND: Alterations in tumor growth rate (TGR) in recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM) after treatment may be useful for identifying therapeutic activity. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of volumetric TGR alterations on overall survival (OS) in rGBM treated with chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy (RT). METHODS: Sixty-one rGBM patients treated with chemotherapy with or without concomitant radiation therapy (RT) at 1st or 2nd recurrence were retrospectively examined. Pre- and post-treatment contrast enhancing volumes were computed. Patients were considered "responders" if they reached progression-free survival at 6 months (PFS6) and showed a decrease in TGR after treatment and "non-responders" if they didn't reach PFS6 or if TGR increased.
July 2023An Unusual Cause of Abdominal Bruit.
Mousavi A, McWilliams JP, Danovitch GM, Nassiri N.
A 67-year-old male with a history of stage 5 chronic kidney disease and pre-emptive living unrelated kidney transplant 8 years prior presented to the clinic with a loud abdominal bruit, 2+ bilateral lower extremity edema, and hypertension. Laboratory evaluation revealed a serum creatinine at baseline levels of 2.5 mg/dL and microscopic hematuria on urinalysis. His post-transplant history was notable for BK virus nephropathy and persistent proteinuria, prompting four transplant biopsies, which ultimately demonstrated recurrent immunotactoid glomerulonephritis. Urine output remained normal.
July 2023Contemporary Sequential Segmental Approach to Congenital Heart Disease Using Four-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Ferumoxytol: An Illustrated editorial.
Yoo SJ, Perens G, Nguyen KL, Yoshida T, Saprungruang A, Van Arsdell GS, Finn JP.
The ferumoxytol-enhanced 4D MR angiography with MUSIC (Multiphase Steady State Imaging with Contrast) technique provides a single data set that captures dynamic cardiovascular anatomy and ventricular function at the same time. Homogeneous opacification of all cardiovascular structures within the imaging volume allows full sequential segmental approach to the congenital heart diseases without any blind spots. The complex systemic and pulmonary venous anatomy is particularly well captured in the MUSIC. Cinematographic display of multiplanar sectional and 3D volume images is helpful in the morphological identification of the cardiac chambers, the assessment of the dynamic nature of the ventricular outflow tracts, and the assessment of the coronary arterial origins and courses.
June 2023Increased Signal of the Fibular Collateral Ligament of the Knee on MRI, Clinically Significant?
Alexander AA, Yeager AN, Motamedi K, Seeger LL.
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical significance of signal hyperintensity in the proximal fibular collateral ligament (FCL) on coronal proton density (PD) fat-saturated (FS) MRI of the knee, a common finding. This study is unique in that it characterizes the FCL of a comprehensive, large cohort of both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, which to our knowledge represents the first study with such broad inclusion criteria. METHODS: A large case series was performed analyzing MRI of the knee of 250 patients from July 2021 through September 2021 and retrospectively reviewed. All studies were performed on 3-Tesla MRI scanners with a dedicated knee coil and in accordance with standard institutional knee MRI protocol. Signal in the proximal fibular collateral ligament was assessed on coronal PDFS and axial T2-weighted FS images. Increased signal was classified as none, mild, moderate, or severe. A corresponding chart review of clinic notes was performed to determine the presence or absence of lateral knee pain. An FCL sprain or injury was considered present if the medical record described tenderness on palpation of the lateral knee, positive finding against resistance to the leg (varus stress test) or reverse pivot shift, or any clinical suspicion for lateral complex sprain or posterolateral corner injury.
June 2023High-Definition Cathodal Direct Current Stimulation for Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
Bahr-Hosseini M, Nael K, Unal G, Iacoboni M, Liebeskind DS, Bikson M, Saver JL; TESSERACT Trial Group.
IMPORTANCE: Cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (C-tDCS) provides neuroprotection in preclinical models of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) by inhibiting peri-infarct excitotoxic effects and enhancing collateral perfusion due to its vasodilatory properties. OBJECTIVE: To report the first-in-human pilot study using individualized high-definition (HD) C-tDCS as a treatment of AIS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This randomized clinical trial was sham controlled with 3 + 3 dose escalation design, and was conducted at a single center from October 2018 to July 2021. Eligible participants were treated for AIS within 24 hours from onset, had imaging evidence of cortical ischemia with salvageable penumbra, and were ineligible for reperfusion therapies. HD C-tDCS electrode montage was selected for each patient to deliver the electric current to the ischemic region only. Patients were followed for 90 days.
June 2023Amine-Weighted Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Brain Tumors.
Cho NS, Hagiwara A, Yao J, Nathanson DA, Prins RM, Wang C, Raymond C, Desousa BR, Divakaruni A, Morrow DH, Nghiemphu PL, Lai A, Liau LM, Everson RG, Salamon N, Pope WB, Cloughesy TF, Ellingson BM.
Amine-weighted chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is particularly valuable as an amine- and pH-sensitive imaging technique in brain tumors, targeting the intrinsically high concentration of amino acids with exchangeable amine protons and reduced extracellular pH in brain tumors. Amine-weighted CEST MRI contrast is dependent on the glioma genotype, likely related to differences in degree of malignancy and metabolic behavior. Amine-weighted CEST MRI may provide complementary value to anatomic imaging in conventional and exploratory therapies in brain tumors, including chemoradiation, antiangiogenic therapies, and immunotherapies. Continual improvement and clinical testing of amine-weighted CEST MRI has the potential to greatly impact patients with brain tumors by understanding vulnerabilities in the tumor microenvironment that may be therapeutically exploited.
June 2023Multi-Nuclear Sodium, Diffusion, and Perfusion MRI in Human Gliomas.
Cho NS, Sanvito F, Thakuria S, Wang C, Hagiwara A, Nagaraj R, Oshima S, Lopez Kolkovsky AL, Lu J, Raymond C, Liau LM, Everson RG, Patel KS, Kim W, Yang I, Bergsneider M, Nghiemphu PL, Lai A, Nathanson DA, Cloughesy TF, Ellingson BM.
PURPOSE: There is limited knowledge about the associations between sodium and proton MRI measurements in brain tumors. The purpose of this study was to quantify intra- and intertumoral correlations between sodium, diffusion, and perfusion MRI in human gliomas. METHODS: Twenty glioma patients were prospectively studied on a 3T MRI system with multinuclear capabilities. Three mutually exclusive tumor volumes of interest (VOIs) were segmented: contrast-enhancing tumor (CET), T2/FLAIR hyperintense non-enhancing tumor (NET), and necrosis. Median and voxel-wise associations between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), normalized relative cerebral blood volume (nrCBV), and normalized sodium measurements were quantified for each VOI.
June 2023Comparison of Three Ultrasmall, Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for MRI at 3.0 T.
Colbert CM, Ming Z, Pogosyan A, Finn JP, Nguyen KL.
BACKGROUND: The ultrasmall, superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticle ferumoxytol has unique applications in cardiac, vascular, and body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) due to its long intravascular half-life and suitability as a blood pool agent. However, limited availability and high cost have hindered its clinical adoption. A new ferumoxytol generic, and the emergence of MoldayION as an alternative USPIO, represent opportunities to expand the use of USPIO-enhanced MRI techniques. PURPOSE: To compare in vitro and in vivo MRI relaxometry and enhancement of Feraheme, generic ferumoxytol, and MoldayION. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. ANIMAL MODEL: Ten healthy swine and six swine with artificially induced coronary narrowing underwent cardiac MRI. FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3.0 T; T1-weighted (4D-MUSIC, 3D-VIBE, 2D-MOLLI) and T2-weighted (2D-HASTE) sequences pre- and post-contrast. ASSESSMENT: We compared the MRI relaxometry of Feraheme, generic ferumoxytol, and MoldayION using saline, plasma, and whole blood MRI phantoms with contrast concentrations from 0.26 mM to 2.10 mM. In-vivo contrast effects on T1- and T2-weighted sequences and fractional intravascular contrast distribution volume in myocardium, liver, and spleen were evaluated.
June 2023Patient-Friendly Summary of the ACR Appropriateness Criteria®: Hemoptysis.
Donnelly L, Ledbetter L.
Coughing up blood is a condition known as hemoptysis. Causes include acute respiratory tract infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis, bronchiectasis (permanently damaged airways in the lung due to infection), and lung carcinomas (lung cancer or cancer that spread to the lungs). Hemoptysis is categorized as massive or nonmassive. Massive hemoptysis is life-threatening due to either asphyxiation (suffocation) or loss of blood.
June 2023Objective Response Rate Targets for Recurrent Glioblastoma Clinical Trials Based on the Historic Association Between Objective Response Rate and Median Overall Survival.
Ellingson BM, Wen PY, Chang SM, van den Bent M, Vogelbaum MA, Li G, Li S, Kim J, Youssef G, Wick W, Lassman AB, Gilbert MR, de Groot JF, Weller M, Galanis E, Cloughesy TF.
Durable objective response rate (ORR) remains a meaningful endpoint in recurrent cancer; however, the target ORR for single-arm recurrent glioblastoma trials has not been based on historic information or tied to patient outcomes. The current study reviewed 68 treatment arms comprising 4793 patients in past trials in recurrent glioblastoma in order to judiciously define target ORRs for use in recurrent glioblastoma trials. ORR was estimated at 6.1% [95% CI 4.23; 8.76%] for cytotoxic chemothera + pies (ORR = 7.59% for lomustine, 7.57% for temozolomide, 0.64% for irinotecan, and 5.32% for other agents), 3.37% for biologic agents, 7.97% for (select) immunotherapies, and 26.8% for anti-angiogenic agents. ORRs were significantly correlated with median overall survival (mOS) across chemotherapy (R2= 0.4078, P < .0001), biologics (R2= 0.4003, P = .0003), and immunotherapy trials (R2= 0.8994, P < .0001), but not anti-angiogenic agents (R2= 0, P = .8937). Pooling data from chemotherapy, biologics, and immunotherapy trials, a meta-analysis indicated a strong correlation between ORR and mOS (R2= 0.3900, P < .0001; mOS [weeks] = 1.4xORR + 24.8). Assuming an ineffective cytotoxic (control) therapy has ORR = 7.6%, the average ORR for lomustine and temozolomide trials, a sample size of ≥40 patients with target ORR>25% is needed to demonstrate statistical significance compared to control with a high level of confidence (P < .01) and adequate power (>80%). Given this historic data and potential biases in patient selection, we recommend that well-controlled, single-arm phase II studies in recurrent glioblastoma should have a target ORR >25% (which translates to a median OS of approximately 15 months) and a sample size of ≥40 patients, in order to convincingly demonstrate antitumor activity. Crucially, this response needs to have sufficient durability, which was not addressed in the current study.
June 2023Clinical Impact and Safety of Non-Target Punctures (NTP) During Portal Vein Access in TIPS Procedure.
Feinggumloon S, Haber Z, Saab S, Kaldas F, Eghbalieh N, Luong TT, McWilliams JP, Lee EW.
BACKGROUND: Although non-target puncture (NPT)-related complications are well known to clinicians performing TIPS, there is no NTP-focused study to assess the true clinical sequalae of NTP-related complications. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the incidence, safety, clinical outcomes and complications related to NTPs during the portal access of TIPS procedures. METHODS: A retrospective review of 369 TIPS procedures from October 2007 to September 2019 was performed. We identified inadvertent NTPs, including biliary, hepatic artery, lymphatic and capsular punctures. Next, the medical records and images were reviewed and analyzed to assess the safety and clinical outcomes of these cohorts.
June 2023Using EGFR Amplification to Stratify Recurrent Glioblastoma Treated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.
Friedman JS, Jun T, Rashidipour O, Huang KL, Ellis E, Kadaba P, Belani P, Nael K, Tsankova NM, Sebra R, Hormigo A.
PURPOSE: While immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have had success with various malignancies, their efficacy in brain cancer is still unclear. Retrospective and prospective studies using PD-1 inhibitors for recurrent glioblastoma (GBM) have not established survival benefit. This study evaluated if ICI may be effective for select patients with recurrent GBM. METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective study of adult patients diagnosed with first recurrence GBM and received pembrolizumab or nivolumab with or without concurrent bevacizumab. Archival tissue was used for immunohistochemistry (IHC) and targeted DNA next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis.
June 2023Improving the Quantitative Analysis of Breast Microcalcifications: A Multiscale Approach.
Marasinou C, Li B, Paige J, Omigbodun A, Nakhaei N, Hoyt A, Hsu W.
Accurate characterization of microcalcifications (MCs) in 2D digital mammography is a necessary step toward reducing the diagnostic uncertainty associated with the callback of indeterminate MCs. Quantitative analysis of MCs can better identify MCs with a higher likelihood of ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive cancer. However, automated identification and segmentation of MCs remain challenging with high false positive rates. We present a two-stage multiscale approach to MC segmentation in 2D full-field digital mammograms (FFDMs) and diagnostic magnification views. Candidate objects are first delineated using blob detection and Hessian analysis. A regression convolutional network, trained to output a function with a higher response near MCs, chooses the objects which constitute actual MCs. The method was trained and validated on 435 screening and diagnostic FFDMs from two separate datasets. We then used our approach to segment MCs on magnification views of 248 cases with amorphous MCs. We modeled the extracted features using gradient tree boosting to classify each case as benign or malignant. Compared to state-of-the-art comparison methods, our approach achieved superior mean intersection over the union (0.670 ± 0.121 per image versus 0.524 ± 0.034 per image), intersection over the union per MC object (0.607 ± 0.250 versus 0.363 ± 0.278) and true positive rate of 0.744 versus 0.581 at 0.4 false positive detections per square centimeter. Features generated using our approach outperformed the comparison method (0.763 versus 0.710 AUC) in distinguishing amorphous calcifications as benign or malignant.
June 2023How AI Responds to Common Lung Cancer Questions: ChatGPT vs Google Bard.
Rahsepar AA, Tavakoli N, Kim GHJ, Hassani C, Abtin F, Bedayat A.
Background The recent release of large language models (LLMs) for public use, such as ChatGPT and Google Bard, has opened up a multitude of potential benefits as well as challenges. Purpose To evaluate and compare the accuracy and consistency of responses generated by publicly available ChatGPT-3.5 and Google Bard to non-expert questions related to lung cancer prevention, screening, and terminology commonly used in radiology reports based on the recommendation of Lung Imaging Reporting and Data System (Lung-RADS) v2022 from American College of Radiology and Fleischner society. Materials and Methods Forty of the exact same questions were created and presented to ChatGPT-3.5 and Google Bard experimental version as well as Bing and Google search engines by three different authors of this paper. Each answer was reviewed by two radiologists for accuracy. Responses were scored as correct, partially correct, incorrect, or unanswered. Consistency was also evaluated among the answers. Here, consistency was defined as the agreement between the three answers provided by ChatGPT-3.5, Google Bard experimental version, Bing, and Google search engines regardless of whether the concept conveyed was correct or incorrect. The accuracy among different tools were evaluated using Stata. Results ChatGPT-3.5 answered 120 questions with 85 (70.8%) correct, 14 (11.7%) partially correct, and 21 (17.5%) incorrect. Google Bard did not answer 23 (19.1%) questions. Among the 97 questions answered by Google Bard, 62 (51.7%) were correct, 11 (9.2%) were partially correct, and 24 (20%) were incorrect. Bing answered 120 questions with 74 (61.7%) correct, 13 (10.8%) partially correct, and 33 (27.5%) incorrect. Google search engine answered 120 questions with 66 (55%) correct, 27 (22.5%) partially correct, and 27 (22.5%) incorrect. The ChatGPT-3.5 is more likely to provide correct or partially answer than Google Bard, approximately by 1.5 folds (OR = 1.55, P = 0.004). ChatGPT-3.5 and Google search engine were more likely to be consistent than Google Bard by approximately 7 and 29 folds (OR = 6.65, P = 0.002 for ChatGPT and OR = 28.83, P = 0.002 for Google search engine, respectively). Conclusion Although ChatGPT-3.5 had a higher accuracy in comparison with the other tools, neither ChatGPT nor Google Bard, Bing and Google search engines answered all questions correctly and with 100% consistency.
June 202368Ga-PSMA PET/CT-Based Atlas for Prostate Bed Recurrence After Radical Prostatectomy: Clinical Implications for Salvage Radiation Therapy Contouring Guidelines.
Sonni I, Dal Pra A, O'Connell DP, Ells Z, Benz M, Nguyen K, Yoon SM, Deng J, Smith C, Grogan T, Nickols NG, Cao M, Kishan AU, Calais J.
The aim of this study was to analyze the patterns of prostate bed (PB) recurrence in prostate cancer patients experiencing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) persistence (BCP) or biochemical recurrence (BCR) after radical prostatectomy using 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET/CT (68Ga-PSMA PET) in relation to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) clinical target volumes (CTVs). Methods: This single-center, retrospective analysis included patients with BCP or BCR after radical prostatectomy and PB recurrence on 68Ga-PSMA PET. The PB recurrences were delineated by nuclear medicine physicians, the CTVs by radiation oncologists contouring guidelines on the 68Ga-PSMA PET, respectively, masked from each other. The coverage of the 68Ga-PSMA PET recurrence was categorized as PSMA recurrence completely covered, partially covered, or not covered by the RTOG-based CTV. Further, we evaluated the differences in PSMA recurrence patterns among patients with different 68Ga-PSMA PET staging (miTNM). Mann-Whitney U tests, the chi-square test, and Spearman (ρ) correlation analysis were used to investigate associations between CTV coverage and 68Ga-PSMA PET-based tumor volume, serum PSA levels, miTNM, and rectal/bladder involvement.
June 2023Correlation of Computed Tomography, Pathological Findings, and Clinical Outcomes for Appendicoliths in Appendicitis.
Weitzner ZN, Chung A, Naini BV, Graham D, Livingston EH.
OBJECTIVES: To correlate preoperative imaging of fecaliths with what is seen in surgical specimens. BACKGROUND: Early studies considered radiological findings of appendicoliths as a contraindication for nonoperative treatment of appendicitis. There is no standard definition for what is labeled as an appendicolith radiologically and little is known about the pathological correlates of these lesions. METHODS: A single center, retrospective study of a consecutive series of adult patients who underwent appendectomy for acute appendicitis from March 2021 to February 2022 was performed. The primary outcome was concordance between preoperative cross-sectional imaging description of appendicolith with postoperative gross pathology description. Images were retrospectively reviewed by an independent radiologist, and the presence and characteristics of appendicoliths and appendices were examined.
June 2023Evaluation of Standard Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology, Modified Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology, and Immunotherapy Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology in Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Glioblastoma.
Youssef G, Rahman R, Bay C, Wang W, Lim-Fat MJ, Arnaout O, Bi WL, Cagney DN, Chang YS, Cloughesy TF, DeSalvo M, Ellingson BM, Flood TF, Gerstner ER, Gonzalez Castro LN, Guenette JP, Kim AE, Lee EQ, McFaline-Figueroa JR, Potter CA, Reardon DA, Huang RY, Wen PY.
PURPOSE: The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria are widely used in high-grade glioma clinical trials. We compared the RANO criteria with updated modifications (modified RANO [mRANO] and immunotherapy RANO [iRANO] criteria) in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma (nGBM) and recurrent GBM (rGBM) to evaluate the performance of each set of criteria and inform the development of the planned RANO 2.0 update. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Evaluation of tumor measurements and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences were performed by blinded readers to determine disease progression using RANO, mRANO, iRANO, and other response assessment criteria. Spearman's correlations between progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated.
May 2023Classification of Genicular Artery Anatomic Variants Using Intraoperative Cone-Beam Computed Tomography.
Callese TE, Cusumano L, Redwood KD, Genshaft S, Plotnik A, Stewart J, Padia SA.
PURPOSE: Genicular artery embolization (GAE) is a new treatment option for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Genicular arterial anatomy is complex with limited published reports. This study describes the genicular artery anatomy utilizing intraprocedural cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) during GAE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective single-center study was approved by the institutional review board. All patients who underwent GAE between May 2018 and April 2022 were reviewed. Patients with a technically adequate CBCT were included in the analysis. CBCTs were analyzed to determine the presence, course, and branching patterns of the genicular arteries.
May 2023Radiologist's Disease: Imaging for Renal Cancer.
Chung A, Raman SS.
There is a clear benefit of imaging-based differentiation of small indeterminate masses to its subtypes of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), chromophobe RCC, papillary RCC, fat poor angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma because it helps determine the next step options for the patients. The work thus far in radiology has explored different parameters in computed tomography, MRI, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound with the discovery of many reliable imaging features that suggest certain tissue subtypes. Likert score-based risk stratification systems can help determine management, and new techniques such as perfusion, radiogenomics, single-photon emission tomography, and artificial intelligence can add to the imaging-based evaluation of indeterminate renal masses.
May 2023Design of a High-Flow Catheter Connector to Enhance Fluid Transfer.
Cusumano LR, Callese TE, Mathevosian S, Sprecher A, McWilliams JP.
PURPOSE: To compare the performance of a prototype high-flow catheter connector, the Lamprey Lock, with that of a conventional Luer connector. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Lamprey Lock was created to eliminate the choke point resulting from Luer connections by achieving a cross-sectional area approximately 2.5 times larger than that achieved by a conventional Luer connector. A Lamprey Lock 3-way connector was also created by expanding the inner channels of a traditional Luer 3-way connector and exchanging the male Luer connection with a Lamprey Lock connection. These were tested against unaltered Luer and Luer 3-way connectors to compare flow rates using in vitro models of serous and purulent fluid. Each experimental condition was repeated 5 times.
May 2023Fracture of Inferior Vena Cava Stent After Endovascular Treatment for Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A Case Series and Literature Review.
Ding P, Zhou W, Ding J, Shui S, Xu L, Lee EW.
Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is a rare condition characterized by hepatic venous outflow obstruction. Balloon angioplasty, with or without stenting, is the recommended first-line treatment modality in Asian countries. As a supplement to balloon angioplasty, expandable metallic Z-stent deployment can effectively improve long-term inferior vena cava (IVC) patency. Although stent placement is a standard and frequently performed treatment, very few IVC stent-related complications, such as stent fractures, have been reported. Here we present a case series and a comprehensive review of IVC stent fractures in patients with BCS. The most common characteristic of IVC stent fractures is a protrusion of the proximal segment of the IVC stent into the right atrium and its systolic and diastolic movements along with heart rhythms. Accurate stent deployment, large-diameter balloon dilation, patient breath-holding training, preferential selection of a triple stent, and the use of an internal jugular vein approach to stent deployment may ensure precise stent localization and avoid postoperative complications.
May 2023ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Monitoring Response to Neoadjuvant Systemic Therapy for Breast Cancer: 2022 Update.
Expert Panel on Breast Imaging; Hayward JH, Linden OE, Lewin AA, Weinstein SP, Bachorik AE, Balija TM, Kuzmiak CM, Paulis LV, Salkowski LR, Sanford MF, Scheel JR, Sharpe RE Jr, Small W Jr, Ulaner GA, Slanetz PJ.
Imaging plays a vital role in managing patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy, as treatment decisions rely heavily on accurate assessment of response to therapy. This document provides evidence-based guidelines for imaging breast cancer before, during, and after initiation of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision process support the systematic analysis of the medical literature from peer reviewed journals. Established methodology principles such as Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE are adapted to evaluate the evidence. The RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method User Manual provides the methodology to determine the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where peer reviewed literature is lacking or equivocal, experts may be the primary evidentiary source available to formulate a recommendation.
May 2023ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Headache: 2022 Update.
Expert Panel on Neurological Imaging; Utukuri PS, Shih RY, Ajam AA, Callahan KE, Chen D, Dunkle JW, Hunt CH, Ivanidze J, Ledbetter LN, Lee RK, Malu O, Pannell JS, Pollock JM, Potrebic SX, Setzen M, Shih RD, Soares BP, Staudt MD, Wang LL, Burns J.
Headache is an ancient problem plaguing a large proportion of the population. At present, headache disorders rank third among the global causes of disability, accounting for over $78 billion per year in direct and indirect costs in the United States. Given the prevalence of headache and the wide range of possible etiologies, the goal of this document is to help clarify the most appropriate initial imaging guidelines for headache for eight clinical scenarios/variants, which range from acute onset, life-threatening etiologies to chronic benign scenarios. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision process support the systematic analysis of the medical literature from peer reviewed journals. Established methodology principles such as Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE are adapted to evaluate the evidence. The RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method User Manual provides the methodology to determine the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where peer reviewed literature is lacking or equivocal, experts may be the primary evidentiary source available to formulate a recommendation.
May 2023Cardiac Outpouchings: Practical Approach to Normal Variants and Pathologic Conditions at CT and MRI.
Hassani C, Walker CM, Urdaneta F, Prosper AE, Finn JP, Bedayat A, Saremi F.
Numerous entities, both structural and pathologic, can manifest as a contrast material- or blood-filled cardiac outpouching at imaging. These outpouchings often resemble one another and are frequently unfamiliar to imagers and clinicians, creating uncertainty when detected. Furthermore, the diagnostic criteria for conditions such as hernia, aneurysm, pseudoaneurysm, and diverticulum have not been consistently applied in studies and reports cited in the literature describing these outpouchings, adding to the confusion among general and cardiothoracic imagers. Pouches and outpouchings are commonly found incidentally on thoracic and abdominal CT scans obtained for other reasons. Many pouches and outpouchings can be confidently diagnosed or ignored at routine imaging, whereas others may require further evaluation with electrocardiographically gated CT, cardiac MRI, or echocardiography for a more definitive diagnosis. It is easiest to group and diagnose these entities on the basis of their cardiac chamber location or their involvement with the interatrial and interventricular septa. Ancillary features, such as motion, morphology, neck and body size, presence or absence of thrombus, and late gadolinium enhancement characteristics, are important in reaching a correct diagnosis. The aim of this article is to provide a practical guide to pouches and outpouchings of the heart. Each entity is defined according to its cause, imaging characteristics, clinical significance, and relevant associated findings. Mimics of cardiac pouches and outpouchings such as the Bachmann bundle, atrial veins, and thebesian vessels also are briefly discussed. Quiz questions for this article are available in the supplemental material. ©RSNA, 2023.
May 2023Perinephric Myxoid Pseudotumor of Fat: a Multimodality Imaging Case Series.
Lee J, King KG, Chopra S, Cheng PM.
Perinephric myxoid pseudotumor of fat (PMPF) is an unusual clinical entity with few prior imaging case reports. We report a multimodality imaging case series of PMPF, consisting of four cases seen in our department with both imaging studies and histopathologic confirmation. Three of the four patients had a history of advanced non-neoplastic renal disease. The perirenal masses in these cases varied in size and appearance. Some lesions resembled cysts or contained macroscopic fat. Enhancement was equivocal on CT, but prominent in one case on MRI and in another on contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Although not known to be malignant, PMPF may be confused for a cyst, liposarcoma, or hypovascular solid neoplasm on imaging. The dominant mass was resected in two cases because of concern for malignancy, while percutaneous CT-guided biopsy was performed in the other two. Mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was negative in all four cases, excluding well-differentiated liposarcoma. Radiologists should be familiar with PMPF to provide appropriate guidance on clinical management.
May 2023Factors Associated with Nonadherence to Lung Cancer Screening Across Multiple Screening Time Points.
Lin Y, Liang LJ, Ding R, Prosper AE, Aberle DR, Hsu W.
IMPORTANCE: Screening with low-dose computed tomography (CT) has been shown to reduce mortality from lung cancer in randomized clinical trials in which the rate of adherence to follow-up recommendations was over 90%; however, adherence to Lung Computed Tomography Screening Reporting & Data System (Lung-RADS) recommendations has been low in practice. Identifying patients who are at risk of being nonadherent to screening recommendations may enable personalized outreach to improve overall screening adherence. OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with patient nonadherence to Lung-RADS recommendations across multiple screening time points. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This cohort study was conducted at a single US academic medical center across 10 geographically distributed sites where lung cancer screening is offered. The study enrolled individuals who underwent low-dose CT screening for lung cancer between July 31, 2013, and November 30, 2021. EXPOSURES: Low-dose CT screening for lung cancer.
May 2023Effect of Treatment with Paliperidone Palmitate versus Oral Antipsychotics on Frontal Lobe Intracortical Myelin Volume in Participants with Recent-Onset Schizophrenia: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Results from the DREaM Study.
Tishler TA, Ellingson BM, Salvadore G, Baker P, Turkoz I, Subotnik KL, de la Fuente-Sandoval C, Nuechterlein KH, Alphs L.
Objective: We investigated changes in brain intracortical myelin (ICM) volume in the frontal lobe after 9 months of treatment with paliperidone palmitate (PP) compared with 9 months of treatment with oral antipsychotics (OAP) in participants with recent-onset schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder from the Disease Recovery Evaluation and Modification (DREaM) study, a randomized, open-label, delayed-start trial. METHODS: DREaM included 3 phases: Part I, a 2-month oral run-in; Part II, a 9-month disease progression phase (PP or OAP); and Part III, 9 months of additional treatment (participants receiving PP continued PP [PP/PP] and participants receiving OAP were rerandomized to receive either PP [OAP/PP] or OAP [OAP/OAP]). In Part II, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional and symptomatic assessment was performed at baseline, day 92, and day 260. ICM volume as a fraction of the entire brain volume was quantified by subtraction of a proton density image from an inversion recovery image. Within-treatment-group changes from baseline were assessed by paired t-tests. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze ICM volume changes between treatment groups, adjusting for country.
May 2023Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter Clinical Trial Evaluating Longitudinal Changes in Brain Function and Microstructure in First-Episode Schizophrenia Patients Treated with Long-Acting Injectable Paliperidone Palmitate Versus Oral Antipsychotics.
Wang C, Tishler TA, Oughourlian T, Nuechterlein KH, de la Fuente-Sandoval C, Ellingson BM.
Widespread anatomical alterations and abnormal functional connectivity have shown strong association with symptom severity in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients. Second-generation antipsychotic treatment might slow disease progression and possibly modify the cerebral plasticity in FES patients. However, whether a long-acting injectable antipsychotic (paliperidone palmitate [PP]), available in monthly and every-3-months formulations, is more effective than oral antipsychotics (OAP) in improving cerebral organization has been unclear. Therefore, in the current longitudinal study, we evaluated the differences in functional and microstructural changes of 68 FES patients in a randomized clinical trial of PP vs OAP. When compared to OAP treatment, PP treatment was more effective in decreasing abnormally high fronto-temporal and thalamo-temporal connectivity, as well as increasing fronto-sensorimotor and thalamo-insular connectivity. Consistent with previous studies, multiple white matter pathways showed larger changes in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) in response to PP compared with OAP treatment. These findings suggest that PP treatment might reduce regional abnormalities and improve cerebral connectivity networks compared with OAP treatment, and identified changes that may serve as reliable imaging biomarkers associated with medication treatment efficacy.
April 2023SimpleMind: An Open-Source Software Environment That Adds Thinking to Deep Neural Networks.
Choi Y, Wahi-Anwar MW, Brown MS.
Deep neural networks (DNNs) detect patterns in data and have shown versatility and strong performance in many computer vision applications. However, DNNs alone are susceptible to obvious mistakes that violate simple, common sense concepts and are limited in their ability to use explicit knowledge to guide their search and decision making. While overall DNN performance metrics may be good, these obvious errors, coupled with a lack of explainability, have prevented widespread adoption for crucial tasks such as medical image analysis. The purpose of this paper is to introduce SimpleMind, an open-source software environment for Cognitive AI focused on medical image understanding. It allows creation of a knowledge base that describes expected characteristics and relationships between image objects in an intuitive human-readable form. The knowledge base can then be applied to an input image to recognize and understand its content. SimpleMind brings thinking to DNNs by: (1) providing methods for reasoning with the knowledge base about image content, such as spatial inferencing and conditional reasoning to check DNN outputs; (2) applying process knowledge, in the form of general-purpose software agents, that are dynamically chained together to accomplish image preprocessing, DNN prediction, and result post-processing, and (3) performing automatic co-optimization of all knowledge base parameters to adapt agents to specific problems. SimpleMind enables reasoning on multiple detected objects to ensure consistency, providing cross-checking between DNN outputs. This machine reasoning improves the reliability and trustworthiness of DNNs through an interpretable model and explainable decisions. Proof-of-principle example applications are provided that demonstrate how SimpleMind supports and improves deep neural networks by embedding them within a Cognitive AI environment.
April 2023Fractional Myocardial Blood Volume by Ferumoxytol-Enhanced MRI: Estimation of Ischemic Burden.
Colbert CM, Hollowed JJ, Nguyen DN, Duarte-Vogel S, Dahlbom M, Hu P, Nguyen KL.
PURPOSE: To investigate model-fitted fractional myocardial blood volume (fMBV) derived from ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI as a measure of myocardial tissue hypoperfusion at rest. METHODS: We artificially induced moderate to severe focal coronary stenosis in the left anterior descending artery of 19 swine by percutaneous delivery of a 3D-printed coronary implant. Using the MOLLI pulse sequence, we acquired T1 maps at 3 T after multiple incremental ferumoxytol doses (0.0-4.0 mg/kg). We computed pixel-wise fMBV using a multi-compartmental modeling approach in 19 ischemic swine and 4 healthy swine.
April 2023Transvertebral Cryoablation of a Paraesophageal Mass in a Patient with Metastatic Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma
Fletcher S, Seals KF, Cameron RB, Abtin F
Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare but aggressive cancer with limited treatment options. Percutaneous cryoablation is emerging as a promising treatment option for control of local recurrence and for palliative management of the disease-related symptoms. At times, recurrent malignant pleural mesothelioma is difficult to target as it can recur within the mediastinum and can be surrounded by vital organs and large vessels. This case report describes a challenging yet safe and successful transvertebral approach for percutaneous cryoablation of a paraesophageal mass for palliative treatment of a patient with single-site recurrent metastatic malignant pleural mesothelioma within the mediastinum.
April 2023A Single-Institution Retrospective Analysis of Pathologically Determined Malignant Transformation in IDH Mutant Glioma Patients.
Liu V, Wetzel EA, Eldred BSC, Zapanta Rinonos S, Prins TJ, Khanlou N, Liau LM, Chong R, Nghiemphu PL, Cloughesy TF, Ellingson BM, Lai A.
BACKGROUND: Lower-grade IDH mutant glioma patients frequently undergo malignant transformation (MT), with apparent worse prognosis. Many studies examine MT in mixed IDH status cohorts and define MT using imaging, not histopathology. Our study examines the timing, predictors, and prognostic implications of pathologically determined MT in a large, exclusively IDH mutant cohort. METHODS: We identified 193 IDH mutant lower-grade glioma patients at UCLA who received multiple surgeries. We examined the outcomes of pathologically determined MT patients.
April 2023Cherubism: A Case Report
McArthur M, Pierce J, Salamon N
Cherubism is a rare genetic disorder resulting in the replacement of the mandible and sometimes the maxilla with expansile cystic lesions. The disorder usually presents in childhood, with eventual quiescence in early adulthood. We report a case of cherubism involving both the mandible and the maxilla and complicated by mass effect on the nasal cavity and the left orbit. Pathologic features, clinical considerations, and treatment of cherubism are discussed.
April 2023Successful Removal of a Leadless Pacemaker from the Pulmonary Artery via a Novel Basket Retrieval System.
McNamara GPJ, Haber ZM, Lee EW, Levi DS, Bender A.
Leadless pacemakers present an alternative to traditional transvenous lead-based systems with the advantage of reduced risk of infection, vascular stenosis, pneumothorax, and tricuspid valve leaflet impingement.1,2 The Micra AV (Micra; Medtronic PLC, Dublin, Ireland) (Supplemental Figure 1) is a recently FDA-approved device that has a broadened use for patients with symptomatic heart block by adding the ability to track atrial activity. The Micra is implanted with a 23F deflectable delivery sheath that is advanced through a 27F outer sheath placed in the common femoral vein. The leadless pacemaker is delivered to a septal location within the right ventricle (RV) and is held in place by 4 nitinol tines, which secure into the trabeculated RV myocardium.
April 2023Uncertainty-Aware Physics-Driven Deep Learning Network for Free-Breathing Liver Fat and R2 * Quantification Using Self-Gated Stack-of-Radial MRI.
Shih SF, Kafali SG, Calkins KL, Wu HH.
PURPOSE: To develop a deep learning-based method for rapid liver proton-density fat fraction (PDFF) and R2 * quantification with built-in uncertainty estimation using self-gated free-breathing stack-of-radial MRI. METHODS: This work developed an uncertainty-aware physics-driven deep learning network (UP-Net) to (1) suppress radial streaking artifacts because of undersampling after self-gating, (2) calculate accurate quantitative maps, and (3) provide pixel-wise uncertainty maps. UP-Net incorporated a phase augmentation strategy, generative adversarial network architecture, and an MRI physics loss term based on a fat-water and R2 * signal model. UP-Net was trained and tested using free-breathing multi-echo stack-of-radial MRI data from 105 subjects. UP-Net uncertainty scores were calibrated in a validation dataset and used to predict quantification errors for liver PDFF and R2 * in a testing dataset.
April 2023Reproducible Microstructural Changes in the Brain Associated with the Presence and Severity of Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (UCPPS): A 3-Year Longitudinal Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study From the MAPP Network.
Wang C, Kutch JJ, Labus JS, Yang CC, Harris RE, Mayer EA, Ellingson BM.
Microstructural alterations have been reported in patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (UCPPS). However, it isn't clear whether these alterations are reproducible within 6 months or whether long-term symptom improvement is associated with specific microstructural changes. Using data from the MAPP-II Research Network, the current study performed population-based voxel-wise DTI and probabilistic tractography in a large sample of participants from the multicenter cohort with UCPPS (N = 364) and healthy controls (HCs, N = 61) over 36 months. While fractional anisotropy (FA) differences between UCPPS patients and HCs were observed to be unique at baseline and 6-month follow-up visits, consistent aberrations in mean diffusivity (MD) were observed between UCPPS and HCs at baseline and repeated at 6 months. Additionally, compared to HCs, UCPPS patients showed stronger structural connectivity (SC) between the left postcentral gyrus and the left precuneus, and weaker SC from the left cuneus to the left lateral occipital cortex and the isthmus of the left cingulate cortex at baseline and 6-month. By 36 months, reduced FA and MD aberrations in these same regions were associated with symptom improvement in UCPPS. Together, results suggest changes in white matter microstructure may play a role in the persistent pain symptoms in UCPPS. PERSPECTIVE: This longitudinal study identified reproducible, "disease-associated" patterns in altered mean diffusivity and abnormal microstructural connectivity in UCPPS comparing to HCs over 6 months. These differences were found in regions involved in sensory processing and integration and pain modulation, making it potentially amenable for clinical interventions that target synaptic and/or neuronal reorganization.
April 2023MR Imaging Biomarkers in HCC: Outcomes Correlation in Liver Transplant Listed Patients.
Wibulpolprasert P, Agopian V, Dumronggittigule W, Lee YS, Yuen A, Raman SS, Markovic D, Lu DS.
PURPOSE: To determine hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) biomarkers that enable the prediction of delisting from tumor progression versus successful transplantation in patients listed for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). METHODS: With IRB approval and HIPPA compliance, patients with HCC awaiting OLT who were delisted due to HCC progression from 2006 to 2015 were identified. Patients with adequate MR images for review were subsequently matched with a cohort of patients successfully bridged to OLT in the same time period. Matching considered the tumor stage and the dominant treatment strategy adopted to bridge the patient to OLT. Potential MRI features were evaluated by univariable and multivariable analysis using a conditional logistic model.
April 2023Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound for Abdominal Image-Guided Procedures.
Wilsen CB, Patel MK, Douek ML, Masamed R, Dittmar KM, Lu DSK, Raman SS.
INTRODUCTION: Since FDA approval for contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), clinical applications have increased to include diagnostic imaging of hepatic, renal, and other abdominal lesions. The modality has also demonstrated utility in certain image-guided procedures. Intravascular ultrasound contrast agents use microbubbles to improve visibility of solid tumors. Lesions not well seen on grayscale or Doppler ultrasound may become amenable to CEUS-guided biopsy or ablation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This pictorial essay provides eleven examples to illustrate the current use of CEUS in a variety of abdominal image-guided procedures. Hepatic, renal, peritoneal, and soft tissue cases are presented.
April 2023A Great Mimicker, Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a 28-Year-Old Man: A Case Report
Yoon JT, Wu PF, Dry SM, Seeger LL
Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare myeloid neoplastic disorder typically seen in children and characterized by infiltrative bone lesions. The skin, the lungs, the liver, and the central nervous system may also be involved. Langerhans cell histiocytosis is even more unusual in adults and presents a diagnostic challenge, given that its imaging characteristics are similar to those of other, more prevalent neoplastic processes. We report a case of LCH in a 28-year-old man with neurologic symptoms due to a nonspecific suprasellar mass and a single lytic lesion in the right bony pelvis. The results of histologic evaluation of the lytic lesion confirmed the diagnosis of LCH.
March 2023Analysis of Imaging Results for Semisitting Compared with Supine Positioning in the Retrosigmoid Approach for Resection of Cerebellopontine Angle Vestibular Schwannomas.
Arambula AM, Wichova H, Lucas JC, Schelbar N, Harn N, Ledbetter L, Chamoun RB, Camarata PJ, Lin J, Staecker H.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the completeness of resection of vestibular schwannomas using three-dimensional segmented volumetric analysis of pre- and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients undergoing supine and semisitting positioning for the retrosigmoid approach. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Tertiary medical center. PATIENTS: Patients with vestibular schwannomas undergoing surgical resection via the retrosigmoid approach. INTERVENTIONS: Tumor resection via the retrosigmoid approach with different patient positioning: standard supine versus semisitting. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Preoperative versus postoperative three-dimensional segmented volumetric MRI analysis of vestibular schwannomas.
March 2023Use of an Aortic Balloon to Achieve Uterine Conservation in a Case of Placenta Accreta Spectrum: A Case Report.
Bartels HC, Brophy DP, Moriarty JM, Geoghegan T, McMahon G, Donnelly J, Thompson C, Brennan DJ.
Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) is a rare complication of pregnancy associated with a high risk of massive haemorrhage and caesarean hysterectomy. This is a case report of abdominal aortic balloon occlusion, using intravascular ultrasound, to achieve uterine conservation in a case of severe PAS. The patient was a 34-year-old woman, G2P1, with one prior caesarean section. Antenatal imaging, consisting of transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging, showed features of PAS. The risk of caesarean hysterectomy with PAS was explained, but the patient declared a desire to retain fertility. Following multi-disciplinary discussion, it was considered appropriate to attempt uterine conservation using en-bloc myometrial and placental resection. An elective caesarean delivery was performed at 36 weeks of gestation. An aortic balloon was inserted prior to surgery using intravascular ultrasound, which allowed for radiation-free, point-of-surgery, accurate balloon sizing, by measuring the aortic diameter, and correct placement of the balloon in the abdominal aorta below the renal vessels. Intraoperative findings confirmed PAS, and a myometrial resection was performed. There were no intraoperative complications. Estimated blood loss was 1000 mL and the patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course. This case demonstrates how the use of an intravascular intraoperative aortic balloon can facilitate uterine conservation in a case of severe PAS.
March 2023Risk Factors of Unexplained Early Neurological Deterioration after Treatment for Ischemic Stroke due to Large Vessel Occlusion: A Post Hoc Analysis of the HERMES Study.
Bourcier R, Goyal M, Muir KW, Desal H, Dippel DWJ, Majoie CBLM, van Zwam WH, Jovin TG, Mitchell PJ, Demchuk AM, van Oostenbrugge RJ, Brown SB, Campbell B, White P, Hill MD, Saver JL, Weimar C, Jahan R, Guillemin F, Bracard S, Naggara O; HERMES Trialists Collaboration.
BACKGROUND: Early neurological deterioration (END) after endovascular treatment (EVT) in patients with anterior circulation acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is associated with poor outcome. END may remain unexplained by parenchymal hemorrhage (UnEND). We aim to analyze the risk factors of UnEND in the medical management (MM) and EVT arms of the HERMES study. METHODS: We conducted a post-hoc analysis of anterior AIS patients who underwent EVT for proximal anterior occlusions. Risk factors of UnEND, defined as a worsening of ≥4 points between baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and NIHSS at 24 hours without hemorrhage, were compared between both arms using mixed logistic regression models adjusted for baseline characteristics. An interaction analysis between the EVT and MM arms for risk factors of UnEND was conducted.
March 2023Automated Endotracheal Tube Placement Check Using Semantically Embedded Deep Neural Networks.
Brown MS, Wong KP, Shrestha L, Wahi-Anwar M, Daly M, Foster G, Abtin F, Ruchalski KL, Goldin JG, Enzmann D.
RATHIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To develop artificial intelligence (AI) system that assists in checking endotracheal tube (ETT) placement on chest X-rays (CXRs) and evaluate whether it can move into clinical validation as a quality improvement tool. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective data set including 2000 de-identified images from intensive care unit patients was split into 1488 for training and 512 for testing. AI was developed to automatically identify the ETT, trachea, and carina using semantically embedded neural networks that combine a declarative knowledge base with deep neural networks. To check the ETT tip placement, a "safe zone" was computed as the region inside the trachea and 3-7 cm above the carina. Two AI outputs were evaluated: (1) ETT overlay, (2) ETT misplacement alert messages. Clinically relevant performance metrics were compared against prespecified thresholds of >85% overlay accuracy and positive predictive value (PPV) > 30% and negative predictive value NPV > 95% for alerts to move into clinical validation.
March 2023Demographic and Socioeconomic Risk Factors for Granulomatous Mastitis in the United States: A Case-Control Study
Capiro N, Naik P, Lo A, Sayre J, Shaheen M, Thomas M, Roth A.
OBJECTIVE: Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is a benign breast disease that can have an extended clinical course impacting quality of life and causing breast disfigurement. Granulomatous mastitis has been studied throughout the world; however, less is known about GM patients in the United States. We aim to identify demographic and socioeconomic factors associated with GM in the United States. METHODS: An IRB-approved retrospective case-control study was performed of 92 patients with biopsy-proven GM at two institutions in Los Angeles, California: a safety-net hospital and an academic institution. Age-matched controls were selected from patients presenting for diagnostic breast imaging. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were collected. Data were analyzed using univariable test for odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and multivariable conditional logistic regression.
March 2023A Multi-Reader Comparison of Normal-Appearing White Matter Normalization Techniques for Perfusion and Diffusion MRI in Brain Tumors.
Cho NS, Hagiwara A, Sanvito F, Ellingson BM.
PURPOSE: There remains no consensus normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) normalization method to compute normalized relative cerebral blood volume (nrCBV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (nADC) in brain tumors. This reader study explored nrCBV and nADC differences using different NAWM normalization methods. METHODS: Thirty-five newly diagnosed glioma patients were studied. For each patient, two readers created four NAWM regions of interests: (1) a single plane in the centrum semiovale (CSOp), (2) 3 spheres in the centrum semiovale (CSOs), (3) a single plane in the slice of the tumor center (TUMp), and (4) 3 spheres in the slice of the tumor center (TUMs). Readers repeated NAWM segmentations 1 month later. Differences in nrCBV and nADC of the FLAIR hyperintense tumor, inter-/intra-reader variability, and time to segment NAWM were assessed. As a validation step, the diagnostic performance of each method for IDH-status prediction was evaluated.
March 2023Transarterial Embolization of Bone Metastases.
Embolization of bone metastases is most commonly performed for hypervascular tumors prior to surgical resection. When employed in this fashion embolization can significantly decrease perioperative hemorrhage and improve surgical outcomes. In addition, embolization of bone metastases may lead to local tumor control and decreased tumoral associate bone pain. Careful techniques and choice of embolic material are required when performing embolization of bone lesions to ensure low procedural complications and high rates of clinical success.4 The indications, technical considerations, and complications associated with embolization of metastatic hypervascular bone lesions will be discussed in this review with subsequent case examples.
March 2023Percutaneous Cholecystoduodenal Stent as a Definite Treatment for Acute Cholecystitis in Elderly or Comorbid Patients: a Bicentric Retrospective Study.
Lee TY, Kim JW, Shim DJ, Kim D, Yoon YC, Lee EW.
PURPOSE: To investigate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous cholecystoduodenal stent (CDS) placement to prevent recurrence of acute cholecystitis in patients who were unfit for cholecystectomy. METHODS: Between April 2016 and January 2022, 46 patients [median age (range) = 81 (37-99) years; men = 15] with acute cholecystitis who were unfit for surgery underwent percutaneous cholecystostomy followed by a CDS placement in two institutions. Plastic stents of three different materials were used [polyethylene, polyurethane (PU), and polycarbonate (PCB)-based PU]. Clinical outcomes, including technical and clinical success rates and early (<30 days) and delayed adverse events, were retrospectively assessed by stent type.
March 2023Comparison of Structural Changes in Nodding Syndrome and Other Epilepsies Associated with Onchocerca Volvulus.
Mazumder R, Lubowa SK, Salamon N, Jackson NJ, Kawooya M, Akun PR, Anguzu R, Ogwang RJ, Kubofcik J, Nutman T, Marsh K, Newton C, Vincent A, Idro R.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nodding syndrome (NS) is a unique childhood-onset epileptic disorder that occurs predominantly in several regions of sub-Saharan Africa. The disease has been associated with Onchocerca volvulus (Ov)-induced immune responses and possible cross-reactivity with host proteins. The aim of this study was to compare structural changes in the brain on MRI between NS and other forms of onchocerciasis-associated epilepsies (OAEs) and to relate structural changes to the Ov-induced immune responses and level of disability. METHODS: Thirty-nine children with NS and 14 age-matched participants with other forms of OAE from an endemic region in Uganda underwent detailed clinical examination, serologic evaluation (including Ov-associated antibodies to Ov-16 and Hu-leiomodin-1) and quantitative volumetric analysis of brain MRIs (1.5 T scanner) using Neuroreader, a cloud-based software.
March 2023Vorasidenib and Ivosidenib in IDH1-Mutant Low-Grade Glioma: A Randomized, Perioperative Phase 1 Trial.
Mellinghoff IK, Lu M, Wen PY, Taylor JW, Maher EA, Arrillaga-Romany I, Peters KB, Ellingson BM, Rosenblum MK, Chun S, Le K, Tassinari A, Choe S, Toubouti Y, Schoenfeld S, Pandya SS, Hassan I, Steelman L, Clarke JL, Cloughesy TF.
Vorasidenib and ivosidenib inhibit mutant forms of isocitrate dehydrogenase (mIDH) and have shown preliminary clinical activity against mIDH glioma. We evaluated both agents in a perioperative phase 1 trial to explore the mechanism of action in recurrent low-grade glioma (IGG) and select a molecule for phase 3 testing. Primary end-point was concentration of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), the metabolic product of mIDH enzymes, measured in tumor tissue from 49 patients with mIDH1-R132H nonenhancing gliomas following randomized treatment with vorasidenib (50 mg or 10 mg once daily, q.d.), ivosidenib (500 mg q.d. or 250 mg twice daily) or no treatment before surgery. Tumor 2-HG concentrations were reduced by 92.6% (95% credible interval (CrI), 76.1-97.6) and 91.1% (95% CrI, 72.0-97.0) in patients treated with vorasidenib 50 mg q.d. and ivosidenib 500 mg q.d., respectively. Both agents were well tolerated and follow-up is ongoing. In exploratory analyses, 2-HG reduction was associated with increased DNA 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, reversal of 'proneural' and 'stemness' gene expression signatures, decreased tumor cell proliferation and immune cell activation. Vorasidenib, which showed brain penetrance and more consistent 2-HG suppression than ivosidenib, was advanced to phase 3 testing in patients with mIDH LGGs.
March 2023Elbow Artery Embolization for Lateral Epicondylitis.
Padia SA, Okuno Y.
Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is characterized by a low-grade inflammatory process in the lateral aspect of the elbow. Symptoms are typically treated conservatively, and most patients show resolution or improvement of symptoms within a few months. For those with refractory symptoms, treatment options are limited with questionable benefit. Embolization of the arteries supplying the elbow decreases the neo-vascularity seen in epicondylitis. The procedure may result in marked improvement in pain and function, which has shown to be durable.
March 2023First-in-Human Trial of Stabilizer Device in Neuroendovascular Therapy.
Sakai C, Sakai N, Takayanagi A, Imamura H, Ohta T, Koyanagi M, Goto M, Fukumitsu R, Sunohara T, Fukui N, Matsumoto S, Akiyama T, Takano Y, Haruyama H, Go K, Kajiura S, Shigeyasu M, Asakura K, Horii R, Naramoto Y, Nishii R, Yamamoto Y, Teranishi K, Kawade S, Imahori T, Kaneko N, Tateshima S.
OBJECTIVES: Flow diverter or stent implantation to intracranial target lesion requires large inner diameter microcatheter navigation. The exchange method using stiff long wire is often necessary if it is difficult to navigate over the regular guidewire. However, this method has an intrinsic risk of vessel damage and may cause severe complications. We investigated the safety and efficacy of a new device, the Stabilizer device for navigation in a first-in-human clinical trial under the Certified Review Board agreement. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Stabilizer is a 320 cm length exchange wire with a stent for anchoring and is compatible with a 0.0165" microcatheter. The trial design is a prospective single-arm open-label registry. Inclusion criteria are elective flow diverter treatment or stent-assisted coiling, expected to be difficult to navigate a microcatheter with a regular micro guidewire, and obtained documented consent. The primary endpoint of the study was a hemorrhagic complication.
March 2023A Multi-Omic Brain Gut Microbiome Signature Differs Between IBS Subjects with Different Bowel Habits.
Sarnoff RP, Bhatt RR, Osadchiy V, Dong T, Labus JS, Kilpatrick LA, Chen Z, Subramanyam V, Zhang Y, Ellingson BM, Naliboff B, Chang L, Mayer EA, Gupta A.
Alterations of the brain-gut-microbiome system (BGM) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), yet bowel habit-specific alterations have not been elucidated. In this cross-sectional study, we apply a systems biology approach to characterize BGM patterns related to predominant bowel habit. Fecal samples and resting state fMRI were obtained from 102 premenopausal women (36 constipation-predominant IBS (IBS-C), 27 diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D), 39 healthy controls (HCs)). Data integration analysis using latent components (DIABLO) was used to integrate data from the phenome, microbiome, metabolome, and resting-state connectome to predict HCs vs IBS-C vs IBS-D. Bloating and visceral sensitivity, distinguishing IBS from HC, were negatively associated with beneficial microbes and connectivity involving the orbitofrontal cortex. This suggests that gut interactions may generate aberrant central autonomic and descending pain pathways in IBS. The connection between IBS symptom duration, key microbes, and caudate connectivity may provide mechanistic insight to the chronicity of pain in IBS. Compared to IBS-C and HCs, IBS-D had higher levels of many key metabolites including tryptophan and phenylalanine, and increased connectivity between the sensorimotor and default mode networks; thus, suggestingan influence on diarrhea, self-related thoughts, and pain perception in IBS-D ('bottom-up' mechanism). IBS-C's microbiome and metabolome resembled HCs, but IBS-C had increased connectivity in the default mode and salience networks compared to IBS-D, which may indicate importance of visceral signals, suggesting a more 'top-down' BGM pathophysiology. These BGM characteristics highlight possible mechanistic differences for variations in the IBS bowel habit phenome. This article is part of the Special Issue on 'Microbiome & the Brain: Mechanisms & Maladies'.
March 2023Approaches to Greening Radiology.
Sumner C, Ikuta I, Garg T, Martin JG, Mansoori B, Chalian M, Englander BS, Chertoff J, Woolen S, Caplin D, Sneider MB, Desouches SL, Chan TL, Kadom N.
The health care sector is a resource-intensive industry, consuming significant amounts of water and energy, and producing a multitude of waste. Health care providers are increasingly implementing strategies to reduce energy use and waste. Little is currently known about existing sustainability strategies and how they may be supported by radiology practices. Here, we review concepts and ideas that minimize energy use and waste, and that can be supported or implemented by radiologists.
March 2023Retrospective Examination of Pseudoprogression in IDH Mutant Gliomas.
Wetzel EA, Farrell MJ, Eldred BSC, Liu V, Saha I, Zapanta Rinonos S, Prins T, Li T, Cao M, Hegde J, Kaprealian T, Khanlou N, Liau LM, Nghiemphu PL, Cloughesy TF, Chong RA, Ellingson BM, Lai A
BACKGROUND: Tumor surveillance of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant gliomas is accomplished via serial contrast MRI. When new contrast enhancement (CEnew) is detected during postsurgical surveillance, clinicians must assess whether CEnew indicates pseudoprogression (PsP) or tumor progression (TP). PsP has been better studied in IDH wild-type glioblastoma but has not been well characterized in IDH mutant gliomas. We conducted a retrospective study evaluating the incidence, predictors, natural history, and survival of PsP patients in a large cohort of IDH mutant glioma patients treated at a single institution. METHODS: We identified 587 IDH mutant glioma patients treated at UCLA. We directly inspected MRI images and radiology reports to identify CEnew and categorized CEnew into TP or PsP using MRI or histopathology.
February 2023Cost Drivers in Endovascular Pulmonary Embolism Interventions.
Callese TE, Moriarty JM, Maehara C, Cusumano L, Mathevosian S, Enzmann D, Padia SA, Srinivasa RN.
AIM: To determine the costs associated with endovascular pulmonary embolism (PE) interventions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Procedural costs were determined utilising time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC). A multidisciplinary team created process maps describing personnel, space, equipment, materials, and time required for each procedural step. Costs and capacity cost rates were determined using institutional and publicly available financial data.
February 2023Predicting Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbations using Quantitative CT: A Retrospective Model Development and External Validation Study.
Chaudhary MFA, Hoffman EA, Guo J, Comellas AP, Newell JD Jr, Nagpal P, Fortis S, Christensen GE, Gerard SE, Pan Y, Wang D, Abtin F, Barjaktarevic IZ, Barr RG, Bhatt SP, Bodduluri S, Cooper CB, Gravens-Mueller L, Han MK, Kazerooni EA, Martinez FJ, Menchaca MG, Ortega VE, Iii RP, Schroeder JD, Woodruff PG, Reinhardt JM.
BACKGROUND: Quantitative CT is becoming increasingly common for the characterisation of lung disease; however, its added potential as a clinical tool for predicting severe exacerbations remains understudied. We aimed to develop and validate quantitative CT-based models for predicting severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. METHODS: We analysed the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures In COPD Study (SPIROMICS) cohort, a multicentre study done at 12 clinical sites across the USA, of individuals aged 40-80 years from four strata: individuals who never smoked, individuals who smoked but had normal spirometry, individuals who smoked and had mild to moderate COPD, and individuals who smoked and had severe COPD. We used 3-year follow-up data to develop logistic regression classifiers for predicting severe exacerbations. Predictors included age, sex, race, BMI, pulmonary function, exacerbation history, smoking status, respiratory quality of life, and CT-based measures of density gradient texture and airway structure. We externally validated our models in a subset from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD (COPDGene) cohort. Discriminative model performance was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), which was also compared with other predictors, including exacerbation history and the BMI, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea, and exercise capacity (BODE) index. We evaluated model calibration using calibration plots and Brier scores.
February 2023Synthesizing MR Image Contrast Enhancement Using 3D High-Resolution ConvNets.
Chen C, Raymond C, Speier W, Jin X, Cloughesy TF, Enzmann D, Ellingson BM, Arnold CW.
OBJECTIVE: Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been widely used to better visualize disease in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, gadolinium deposition within the brain and body has raised safety concerns about the use of GBCAs. Therefore, the development of novel approaches that can decrease or even eliminate GBCA exposure while providing similar contrast information would be of significant use clinically. METHODS: In this work, we present a deep learning based approach for contrast-enhanced T1 synthesis on brain tumor patients. A 3D high-resolution fully convolutional network (FCN), which maintains high resolution information through processing and aggregates multi-scale information in parallel, is designed to map pre-contrast MRI sequences to contrast-enhanced MRI sequences. Specifically, three pre-contrast MRI sequences, T1, T2 and apparent diffusion coefficient map (ADC), are utilized as inputs and the post-contrast T1 sequences are utilized as target output. To alleviate the data imbalance problem between normal tissues and the tumor regions, we introduce a local loss to improve the contribution of the tumor regions, which leads to better enhancement results on tumors.
February 2023Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging Evaluation of Perfusional Changes and Ablation Zone Size after Combination Embolization and Ablation Therapy.
Chiang J, Sparks H, Rink JS, Meloni MF, Hao F, Sung KH, Lee EW.
PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to assess the utility of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in quantifying parenchymal perfusional changes after embolization and to characterize the association between pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and final microwave ablation volume. MATERALS AND METHODS: PK parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging were used to quantify perfusional changes in the liver after transarterial embolization of the right or left lobe in a swine liver model (n = 5). Each animal subject subsequently underwent microwave ablation (60 W for 5 minutes) of the embolized and nonembolized liver lobes. Changes in PK parameters from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging were correlated with their respective final microwave ablation volumes in each liver lobe.
February 2023Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Findings in Patients with Rare Solitary Necrotic Nodule of the Liver - A Multicenter Report.
Francica G, Meloni MF, Riccardi L, de Sio I, Caturelli E, Terracciano F, Giangregorio F, Chiang J, Danzi R, Marra A, Niosi M, Ranalli TV, Pompili M.
PURPOSE: This multicenter retrospective study highlights the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) findings in a series of histologically proven solitary necrotic nodules (SNN) of the liver, a poorly understood pathologic entity of uncertain origin that mimics malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 22 patients (M/F 13/9; mean age 59.4 years, SD ± 10.7, range 35-81) with histological diagnosis of SNN and CEUS were selected from clinical, imaging, and pathological archives of 7 US interventional centers, each of which provided 1 to 6 cases (mean 2.8). Pathological diagnosis was made on 20 US-guided biopsies and 2 surgical specimens. 2 patients had 2 SNNs with identical CEUS findings so that imaging analysis was carried out on 24 nodules.
February 2023Non-Oncologic Incidental Uptake on FAPI PET/CT Imaging.
Hotta M, Rieger AC, Jafarvand MG, Menon N, Farolfi A, Benz MR, Calais J.
Fibroblast-activation protein (FAP) is a serine protease classified in the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) family. FAP is predominantly expressed in activated fibroblasts such as the cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). FAP expression in CAFs is associated with tumor progression and poor prognosis in solid cancers. Recently, radiolabeled FAP inhibitors (FAPI) has been developed, which enables positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of FAP. FAPI PET/CT can provide a higher tumor-to-background ratio (TBR) than 18F-fludeoxyglucose PET/CT in various cancers, and thus has attracted substantial attention. As studies on FAPI PET grow in number and size, incidental findings related to non-oncologic conditions have been increasingly reported. FAPI PET uptake has been reported in various conditions such as benign tumors, fibrotic, granulomatosis, scarring/wound, degenerative diseases, and inflammatory diseases.The knowledge of physiological and non-oncologic causes of FAPI uptake is indispensable for accurate FAPI PET/CT interpretation and can help appropriate management of incidental findings on FAPI PET/CT in patients referred for cancer staging indications. In this review article, we describe for each organ system (Brain, Oral mucosa, Salivary Glands, Thyroid, Lung, Myocardium, Breast, Esophagus, Stomach, Intestine, Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas, Spleen, Kidney, , Uterus, Bone marrow, Joints, Muscle, Vessels, Lymph nodes), the patterns of physiological FAPI uptake and the main causes of non-oncological uptake reported from the literature with FAPI-02, FAPI-04 and FAPI-46. We also illustrate some examples from our institutional database at UCLA.
February 2023Construction of a Radiogenomic Association Map of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.
Jamshidi N, Senthilvelan J, Dawson DW, Donahue TR, Kuo MD.
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) persists as a malignancy with high morbidity and mortality that can benefit from new means to characterize and detect these tumors, such as radiogenomics. In order to address this gap in the literature, constructed a transcriptomic-CT radiogenomic (RG) map for PDAC. METHODS: In this Institutional Review Board approved study, a cohort of subjects (n = 50) with gene expression profile data paired with histopathologically confirmed resectable or borderline resectable PDAC were identified. Studies with pre-operative contrast-enhanced CT images were independently assessed for a set of 88 predefined imaging features. Microarray gene expression profiling was then carried out on the histopathologically confirmed pancreatic adenocarcinomas and gene networks were constructed using Weighted Gene Correlation Network Analysis (WCGNA) (n = 37). Data were analyzed with bioinformatics analyses, multivariate regression-based methods, and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses.
February 2023Multi-Parametric Radiomic Model to Predict 1p/19q Co-Deletion in Patients with IDH-1 Mutant Glioma: Added Value to the T2-FLAIR Mismatch Sign.
Kihira S, Derakhshani A, Leung M, Mahmoudi K, Bauer A, Zhang H, Polson J, Arnold C, Tsankova NM, Hormigo A, Salehi B, Pham N, Ellingson BM, Cloughesy TF, Nael K.
PURPOSE: The T2-FLAIR mismatch sign has shown promise in determining IDH mutant 1p/19q non-co-deleted gliomas with a high specificity and modest sensitivity. To develop a multi-parametric radiomic model using MRI to predict 1p/19q co-deletion status in patients with newly diagnosed IDH1 mutant glioma and to perform a comparative analysis to T2-FLAIR mismatch sign+. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients with diagnosis of IDH1 mutant gliomas with known 1p/19q status who had preoperative MRI were included. T2-FLAIR mismatch was evaluated independently by two board-certified neuroradiologists. Texture features were extracted from glioma segmentation of FLAIR images. eXtremeGradient Boosting (XGboost) classifiers were used for model development. Leave-one-out-cross-validation (LOOCV) and external validation performances were reported for both the training and external validation sets.
February 2023A Competition, Benchmark, Code, and Data for Using Artificial Intelligence to Detect Lesions in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis.
Konz N, Buda M, Gu H, Saha A, Yang J, Chledowski J, Park J, Witowski J, Geras KJ, Shoshan Y, Gilboa-Solomon F, Khapun D, Ratner V, Barkan E, Ozery-Flato M, Martí R, Omigbodun A, Marasinou C, Nakhaei N, Hsu W, Sahu P, Hossain MB, Lee J, Santos C, Przelaskowski A, Kalpathy-Cramer J, Bearce B, Cha K, Farahani K, Petrick N, Hadjiiski L, Drukker K, Armato SG 3rd, Mazurowski MA.
IMPORTANCE: An accurate and robust artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm for detecting cancer in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) could significantly improve detection accuracy and reduce health care costs worldwide. OBJECTIVES: To make training and evaluation data for the development of AI algorithms for DBT analysis available, to develop well-defined benchmarks, and to create publicly available code for existing methods. DESIGN, SETTING, & PARTICIPANTS: This diagnostic study is based on a multi-institutional international grand challenge in which research teams developed algorithms to detect lesions in DBT. A data set of 22 032 reconstructed DBT volumes was made available to research teams. Phase 1, in which teams were provided 700 scans from the training set, 120 from the validation set, and 180 from the test set, took place from December 2020 to January 2021, and phase 2, in which teams were given the full data set, took place from May to July 2021. MAIN OUTCOMES & MEASURES: The overall performance was evaluated by mean sensitivity for biopsied lesions using only DBT volumes with biopsied lesions; ties were broken by including all DBT volumes.
February 2023Utility of In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Imaging Is Predictive of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus During Early Pregnancy.
Lee B, Janzen C, Wu H, Vangala SS, Devaskar SU, Sung K.
CONTEXT: Gestational diabetes (GDM) imposes long-term adverse health effects on the mother and fetus. The role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during early gestation in GDM has not been well-studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of quantitative MRI measurements of placental volume and perfusion, with distribution of maternal adiposity, during early gestation in GDM. METHODS: At UCLA outpatient antenatal obstetrics clinics, ∼200 pregnant women recruited in the first trimester were followed temporally through pregnancy until parturition. Two placental MRI scans were prospectively performed at 14 to 16 weeks and 19 to 24 weeks gestational age (GA). Placental volume and blood flow (PBF) were calculated from placental regions of interest; maternal adiposity distribution was assessed by subcutaneous fat area ratio (SFAR) and visceral fat area ratio (VFAR). Statistical comparisons were performed using the two-tailed t test. Predictive logistic regression modeling was evaluated by area under the curve (AUC).
February 2023Eloquence-based Mismatch: Identifying Endovascular Therapy Responders in Acute Stroke.
February 2023RNA Expression Signatures of Intracranial Aneurysm Growth Trajectory Identified in Circulating Whole Blood.
Poppenberg KE, Chien A, Santo BA, Baig AA, Monteiro A, Dmytriw AA, Burkhardt JK, Mokin M, Snyder KV, Siddiqui AH, Tutino VM.
After detection, identifying which intracranial aneurysms (IAs) will rupture is imperative. We hypothesized that RNA expression in circulating blood reflects IA growth rate as a surrogate of instability and rupture risk. To this end, we performed RNA sequencing on 66 blood samples from IA patients, for which we also calculated the predicted aneurysm trajectory (PAT), a metric quantifying an IA's future growth rate. We dichotomized dataset using the median PAT score into IAs that were either more stable and more likely to grow quickly. The dataset was then randomly divided into training (n = 46) and testing cohorts (n = 20). In training, differentially expressed protein-coding genes were identified as those with expression (TPM > 0.5) in at least 50% of the samples, a q-value < 0.05 (based on modified F-statistics with Benjamini-Hochberg correction), and an absolute fold-change ≥ 1.5. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to construct networks of gene associations and to perform ontology term enrichment analysis. The MATLAB Classification Learner was then employed to assess modeling capability of the differentially expressed genes, using a 5-fold cross validation in training. Finally, the model was applied to the withheld, independent testing cohort (n = 20) to assess its predictive ability. In all, we examined transcriptomes of 66 IA patients, of which 33 IAs were "growing" (PAT ≥ 4.6) and 33 were more "stable". After dividing dataset into training and testing, we identified 39 genes in training as differentially expressed (11 with decreased expression in "growing" and 28 with increased expression). Model genes largely reflected organismal injury and abnormalities and cell to cell signaling and interaction. Preliminary modeling using a subspace discriminant ensemble model achieved a training AUC of 0.85 and a testing AUC of 0.86. In conclusion, transcriptomic expression in circulating blood indeed can distinguish "growing" and "stable" IA cases. The predictive model constructed from these differentially expressed genes could be used to assess IA stability and rupture potential.
February 2023Use of n-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate for Fallopian Tube Embolization via Selective Catheterization in a Rabbit Model: Feasibility Study for Potential Nonsurgical Sterilization.
Stewart JK, Hipolito Canario DA, Daso G, Thapa D, Montgomery S, Kohi M.
PURPOSE: To determine whether fallopian tube embolization with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (nBCA) administered via a microcatheter in a rabbit model was technically feasible and resulted in short-term tubal occlusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 10 female New Zealand white rabbits, the 2 cervices were cannulated using a 5-F catheter and hydrophilic guide wire transvaginally. Salpingography confirmed tubal patency bilaterally. A 2.4-F microcatheter was advanced to the distal fallopian tube, and nBCA/ethiodized oil was administered as the microcatheter was withdrawn to fill the length of the tube. A metallic coil was deployed prior to nBCA administration in half of the fallopian tubes. Rabbits were evaluated for tubal occlusion with salpingography at 1 month, followed by euthanasia and histopathologic analysis. Inflammation and fibrosis were graded from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe).
February 2023Using Free-Breathing MRI to Quantify Pancreatic Fat and Investigate Spatial Heterogeneity in Children.
Story JD, Ghahremani S, Kafali SG, Shih SF, Kuwahara KJ, Calkins KL, Wu HH.
BACKGROUND: MRI acquisition for pediatric pancreatic fat quantification is limited by breath-holds (BH). Full segmentation (FS) or small region of interest (ROI) analysis methods may not account for pancreatic fat spatial heterogeneity, which may limit accuracy. PURPOSE: To improve MRI acquisition and analysis for quantifying pancreatic proton-density fat fraction (pPDFF) in children by investigating free-breathing (FB)-MRI, characterizing pPDFF spatial heterogeneity, and relating pPDFF to clinical markers. STUDY TYPE: Prospective. POPULATION: A total of 34 children, including healthy (N = 16, 8 female) and overweight (N = 18, 5 female) subjects. FIELD STRENGTH AND SEQUENCES: 3 T; multiecho gradient-echo three-dimensional (3D) stack-of-stars FB-MRI, multiecho gradient-echo 3D Cartesian BH-MRI. ASSESSMENT: A radiologist measured FS- and ROI-based pPDFF on FB-MRI and BH-MRI PDFF maps, with anatomical images as references. Regional pPDFF in the pancreatic head, body, and tail were measured on FB-MRI. FS-pPDFF, ROI-pPDFF, and regional pPDFF were compared, and related to clinical markers, including hemoglobin A1c. STATISTICAL TESTS: T-test, Bland-Altman analysis, Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), one-way analysis of variance, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used. P < 0.05 was considered significant.
February 2023Structural Relationship between Cerebral Gray and White Matter Alterations in Degenerative Cervical Myelopathy.
Wang C, Sanvito F, Oughourlian TC, Islam S, Salamon N, Holly LT, Ellingson BM.
Patients with degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) undergo adaptive supraspinal changes. However, it remains unknown how subcortical white matter changes reflect the gray matter loss. The current study investigated the interrelationship between gray matter and subcortical white matter alterations in DCM patients. Cortical thickness of gray matter, as well as the intra-cellular volume fraction (ICVF) of subcortical whiter matter, were assessed in a cohort of 44 patients and 17 healthy controls (HCs). The results demonstrated that cortical thinning of sensorimotor and pain related regions is associated with more severe DCM symptoms. ICVF values of subcortical white matter underlying the identified regions were significantly lower in study patients than in HCs. The left precentral gyrus (r = 0.5715, p < 0.0001), the left supramarginal gyrus (r = 0.3847, p = 0.0099), the left postcentral gyrus (r = 0.5195, p = 0.0003), the right superior frontal gyrus (r = 0.3266, p = 0.0305), and the right caudal (r = 0.4749, p = 0.0011) and rostral anterior cingulate (r = 0.3927, p = 0.0084) demonstrated positive correlations between ICVF and cortical thickness in study patients, but no significant correlations between ICVF and cortical thickness were observed in HCs. Results from the current study suggest that DCM may cause widespread gray matter alterations and underlying subcortical neurite loss, which may serve as potential imaging biomarkers reflecting the pathology of DCM.
January 2023Sex Differences in Outcomes of Percutaneous Pulmonary Artery Thrombectomy in Patients with Pulmonary Embolism.
Agarwal MA, Dhaliwal JS, Yang EH, Aksoy O, Press M, Watson K, Ziaeian B, Fonarow GC, Moriarty JM, Saggar R, Channick R.
BACKGROUND: The sex differences in use, safety outcomes, and health-care resource use of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) undergoing percutaneous pulmonary artery thrombectomy are not well characterized. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the sex differences in outcomes for patients diagnosed with PE who undergo percutaneous pulmonary artery thrombectomy? STUDY DESIGN and METHODS: This retrospective cross-sectional study used national inpatient claims data to identify patients in the United States with a discharge diagnosis of PE who underwent percutaneous thrombectomy between January 2016 and December 2018. We evaluated the demographics, comorbidities, safety outcomes (in-hospital mortality), and health-care resource use (discharge to home, length of stay, and hospital charges) of patients with PE undergoing percutaneous thrombectomy.
January 2023Hemodynamic and Anatomical Factors in Arteriovenous Malformation Clinical Presentation: 45 Case Studies.
Chalil A, Raupp EF, Duckwiler GR, Viñuela F, Lownie SP.
BACKGROUND: Hemodynamic factors have been implicated in hemorrhage from cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). The goal of this endovascular study is to analyze the hemodynamic variability in AVM feeders in a balanced group of ruptured and unruptured AVMs of various sizes and at both superficial and deep locations. METHODS: We monitored feeder artery pressure (FP) using microcatheters in 45 patients with AVMs (16 with hemorrhage, 29 without) during superselective angiography and AVM embolization.
January 2023Alterations of Gray and White Matter Volumes and Cortical Thickness in Treated HIV-Positive Patients.
Joy A, Nagarajan R, Daar ES, Paul J, Saucedo A, Yadav SK, Guerrero M, Haroon E, Macey P, Thomas MA.
Brain structural changes in HIV identified by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) alone could arise from a variety of causes that are difficult to distinguish without further information, such as cortical thickness (CT), gyrification index (GI) or sulcal depth (SD). Hence, our goal was to assess these additional metrics in HIV using high-resolution 3D T1-weighted images and investigate if surface-based morphometric (SBM) analysis would reveal significant changes in the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes combined with alterations in cortical thickness (CT), gyrification index (GI), sulcal depth (SD). T1-w magnetization-prepared-rapid-acquisition gradient-echo (MP-RAGE) scans were acquired in 27 HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 15 HIV-uninfected healthy controls using a 3T MRI scanner equipped with a 16-channel head "receive" and a quadrature body "transmit" coil. Voxel-based and surface-based morphometric analyses were performed using the MATLAB based SPM Computational Anatomy Toolbox (CAT12.7(1700)). HIV-infected patients showed significantly altered GM and WM volumes, CT, GI, and SD, in multiple brain regions. This study showed the association of altered GM and WM volumes in local brain regions with the changes in region-wise CT, GI and SD measures of HIV-infected patients, especially in the parahippocampal and middle frontal regions as compared to uninfected healthy controls. The outcome of this study suggests that the findings of VBM may not necessarily indicate the volumetric shrinkage or increase alone, but might also be due to altered CT, GI, or SD. Correlation analysis showed a significantly accelerated gray matter loss with age in HIV-infected individuals compared to uninfected healthy controls.
January 2023Radiologists Staunchly Support Patient Safety and Autonomy, in Opposition to the SCOTUS Decision to Overturn Roe v Wade.
Karandikar A, Solberg A, Fung A, Lee AY, Farooq A, Taylor AC, Oliveira A, Narayan A, Senter A, Majid A, Tong A, McGrath AL, Malik A, Brown AL, Roberts A, Fleischer A, Vettiyil B, Zigmund B, Park B, Curran B, Henry C, Jaimes C, Connolly C, Robson C, Meltzer CC, Phillips CH, Dove C, Glastonbury C, Pomeranz C, Kirsch CFE, Burgan CM, Scher C, Tomblinson C, Fuss C, Santillan C, Daye D, Brown DB, Young DJ, Kopans D, Vargas D, Martin D, Thompson D, Jordan DW, Shatzkes D, Sun D, Mastrodicasa D, Smith E, Korngold E, Dibble EH, Arleo EK, Hecht EM, Morris E, Maltin EP, Cooke EA, Schwartz ES, Lehrman E, Sodagari F, Shah F, Doo FX, Rigiroli F, Vilanilam GK, Landinez G, Kim GG, Rahbar H, Choi H, Bandesha H, Ojeda-Fournier H, Ikuta I, Dragojevic I, Schroeder JLT, Ivanidze J, Katzen JT, Chiang J, ...
On June 24th 2022 the US Supreme Court, in a 5-4 decision, overturned Roe v. Wade, the landmark 1973 ruling that established the constitutional right to abortion. We are radiologists and medical physicists, many of whom hold or have held leadership roles in our professional community. We are deeply concerned about this erosion of reproductive choice and bodily autonomy across the many States that will now further restrict or even ban access to abortion.
January 2023Concurrent Malignant Infantile Osteopetrosis and Hypophosphatasia in a Six-Year-Old Boy: A Case Report
Kong TY, Ghahremani Koureh S
Malignant infantile osteopetrosis is a rare inherited disease of bone metabolism, in which osteoclast dysfunction and diminished bone turnover lead to diffuse sclerosis with obliteration of the medullary cavities and narrowing of the skull base neural foramina. We report a case of malignant infantile osteopetrosis with bone marrow failure and optic atrophy that co-occurred with hypophosphatasia, another rare inherited bone disease, in a 6-year-old boy. Key imaging signs of these rare diseases are discussed.
January 2023Breast Cancer Among Transgender and Nonbinary Patients: Paradigms for Improving Data Collection and Inclusion in Breast Imaging Settings
Ly DB, Hoyt AC, Weimer A, Chang EH, Capiro N, Xie C, Chow L.
Breast cancer incidence among transgender and nonbinary (TGNB) individuals is not well characterized owing to the absence of robust data collection among this patient population. Consequently, breast cancer risks are largely unknown, and screening guidelines are not based on robust evidence. Additionally, TGNB patients experience barriers to access health care. A first step in improving data collection, research, and ultimately care of TGNB individuals is the identification of group members and demonstration to patients that our breast imaging centers are champions of LGBTQ+ health. At our institution, patients who present for breast imaging complete an iPad-administered breast imaging history and breast cancer risk assessment survey. Using the modified Tyrer-Cuzick model, the lifetime risk of developing breast cancer is estimated, and additional key history that may impact breast care and future breast imaging is collected. Under the previous clinic workflow, patients are identified as either "male" or "female" and complete a corresponding gender-specific survey. To improve care, we revised the survey using gender-inclusive language and developed four versions to allow patients to separately self-report their sex assigned at birth and gender identity. Relevant queries relating to hormone use and gender-affirming chest/breast surgery that are concordant with six gender-identity groups were added. Long-term collection of these inclusive data by imaging centers has the potential to enhance the data set available to improve breast care and better understand breast cancer risk and outcomes among TGNB populations.
January 2023Profiling of Circulating Gene Expression Reveals Molecular Signatures Associated with Intracranial Aneurysm Rupture Risk.
Poppenberg KE, Chien A, Santo BA, Chaves L, Veeturi SS, Waqas M, Monteiro A, Dmytriw AA, Burkhardt JK, Mokin M, Snyder KV, Siddiqui AH, Tutino VM.
Background: Following detection, rupture risk assessment for intracranial aneurysms (IAs) is critical. Towards molecular prognostics, we hypothesized that circulating blood RNA expression profiles are associated with IA risk. METHODS: We performed RNA sequencing on 68 blood samples from IA patients. Here, patients were categorized as either high or low risk by assessment of aneurysm size (≥ 5 mm = high risk) and Population, Hypertension, Age, Size, Earlier subarachnoid hemorrhage, Site (PHASES) score (≥ 1 = high risk). Modified F-statistics and Benjamini-Hochberg false discovery rate correction was performed on transcripts per million-normalized gene counts. Protein-coding genes expressed in ≥ 50% of samples with a q value < 0.05 and an absolute fold-change ≥ 2 were considered significantly differentially expressed. Bioinformatics in Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was performed to understand the biology of risk-associated expression profiles. Association was assessed between gene expression and risk via Pearson correlation analysis. Linear discriminant analysis models using significant genes were created and validated for classification of high-risk cases.
January 2023The Many Faces of COVID-19-Associated Cerebrovascular Disease: A Case Series
Reilly D, Salamon N
The respiratory virus SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the multi-system illness known as COVID-19 and resulting global pandemic of 2020, is increasingly recognized for its ability to cause cerebrovascular complications. This series of four cases from a single institution during the height of the pandemic is presented to illustrate the virus's uniquely diverse pathophysiology and corresponding clinical and radiologic manifestations. As no neurologic manifestation specific to SARS-CoV-2 has been identified, it remains of upmost importance that clinicians and radiologists alike maintain a high index of suspicion for these complications, especially when neurological findings present in the young or otherwise atypical demographics.
January 2023Automated Extraction of Incidental Adrenal Nodules from Electronic Health Records.
Schumm M, Hu MY, Sant V, Kim J, Tseng CH, Sanz J, Raman S, Yu R, Livhits M.
BACKGROUND: Many adrenal incidentalomas do not undergo appropriate biochemical testing and complete imaging characterization to assess for hormone hypersecretion and malignancy. With the growing availability of clinical narratives in the electronic medical record, automated surveillance using advanced data analytic techniques may represent a promising method to improve management. METHODS: A data provisioning process using a series of structured query language scripts was used to abstract all chest and abdominal computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging reports from an academic health care system in 2018. The narratives and impressions were queried for key text relating to the identification of adrenal incidentalomas. Patients with a history of extra-adrenal malignancy undergoing staging or surveillance imaging were excluded. The prevalence and radiographic characteristics were analyzed. Patients with adrenal incidentalomas newly identified in 2018 were assessed for biochemical testing and nodule stability through August 2021.
January 2023Pregnancies Complicated by Gestational Diabetes and Fetal Growth Restriction: an Analysis of Maternal and Fetal Body Composition Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
Strobel KM, Kafali SG, Shih SF, Artura AM, Masamed R, Elashoff D, Wu HH, Calkins KL.
INTRODUCTION: Maternal body composition may influence fetal body composition. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the relationship between maternal and fetal body composition. METHODS: Three pregnant women cohorts were studied: healthy, gestational diabetes (GDM), and fetal growth restriction (FGR). Maternal body composition (visceral adipose tissue volume (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue volume (SAT), pancreatic and hepatic proton-density fat fraction (PDFF) and fetal body composition (abdominal SAT and hepatic PDFF) were measured using MRI between 30 to 36 weeks gestation.
January 2023Bronchial Gene Expression Alterations Associated with Radiological Bronchiectasis.
Xu K, Diaz AA, Duan F, Lee M, Xiao X, Liu H, Liu G, Cho MH, Gower AC, Alekseyev YO, Spira A, Aberle DR, Washko GR, Billatos E, Lenburg ME; DECAMP investigators.
OBJECTIVES: Discovering airway gene expression alterations associated with radiological bronchiectasis may improve the understanding of the pathobiology of early-stage bronchiectasis. METHODS: Presence of radiological bronchiectasis in 173 individuals without a clinical diagnosis of bronchiectasis was evaluated. Bronchial brushings from these individuals were transcriptomically profiled and analysed. Single-cell deconvolution was performed to estimate changes in cellular landscape that may be associated with early disease progression.
January 2023Image-Derived Metrics Quantifying Hemodynamic Instability Predicted Growth of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms.
Yang HH, Sayre J, Dinh H, Nael K, Colby G, Wang A, Villablanca P, Salamon N, Chien A.
BACKGROUND: While image-derived predictors of intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture have been well-explored, current understanding of IA growth is limited. Pulsatility index (PI) and wall shear stress pulsatility index (WSSPI) are important metrics measuring temporal hemodynamic instability. However, they have not been investigated in IA growth research. The present study seeks to verify reliable predictors of IA growth with comparative analyses of several important morphological and hemodynamic metrics between stable and growing cases among a group of unruptured IAs. METHODS: Using 3D images, vascular models of 16 stable and 20 growing cases were constructed and verified using Geodesic techniques. With an overall mean follow-up period of 25 months, cases exhibiting a 10% or higher increase in diameter were considered growing. Patient-specific, pulsatile simulations were performed, and hemodynamic calculations were computed at 5 important regions of each aneurysm (inflow artery, aneurysm neck, body, dome, and outflow artery). Index values were compared between growing and stable IAs using ANCOVA controlling for aneurysm diameter. Stepwise multiple logistic regression and ROC analyses were conducted to investigate predictive models of IA growth.
January 2023A Case Report: Colonic Atresia in a Newborn with Presumed Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome
Yeager AN, Watterson CT, Hall TR
Colonic atresia is an uncommon cause of intestional obstruction. There is a scarcity of cases of colonic atresia described in the literature, and the pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown. Although the clinical presentation of patients with colonic atresia seldom varies, reported co-occurring anomalies vary widely; almost half of the cases involve other congenital defects. We report a case of colonic atresia that appears to have co-occurred with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, another rare congenital disease. Based on a literature search, we believe that this might be the first reported case of co-occurrence of these two rare anomalies.
January 2023Unilateral Hypertrophy of Tensor Fasciae Latae: A Report of Two Cases
Yoo SS, Motamedi K
Unilateral hypertrophy of the tensor fasciae latae (TFL) is an uncommon radiologic finding that may present as a palpable soft tissue mass in the thigh. Accurate radiologic diagnosis can circumvent unnecessary biopsy for this benign finding. We report two cases of unilateral hypertrophy of tensor fasciae latae muscles, both of which presented as a proximal thigh mass. We provide examples of sonographic, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features.